BIOLOGY – ZOOLOGY
INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY
· Nature and Scope of Biology
· Branch and relation with other sciences.
· General approach to understand life processes.
EVOLUTION OF LIFE
· Life and it’s origin
· Theories of Origin of Life
· Oparin and Haldane’s Theory
· Miller and Urey’s experiment
· Meaning of evolution, organic evolution
· Evidences of evolution, organic evolution
· Evidences of evolution , structural, anatomical, Paleontological, Embryological & Biochemical
· Lamarckism, Darwinism & concept of Neo Darwinism
· Human Evolution
· Protista: Characterostics and classification of phylum Protozoa upto class with examples; Habit and Habitat, structure, reproduction and lifecycle of Paramecium and Plasmodium Vivax (a concept of P. falciparum)
· Animalia: General Characters and classification of the following phyla (upto class) with examples- Porifera, Coelenterata (Cnidaria), Platyhelminthes, Aschelminthes (Nemathelminthes), Annelida, Arthopoda, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Chordata.
· Earthworm (Pheretima Posthuma): Habit and habitat, structure: digestive, excretory, reproductive and nervous systems. Economic importance.
· Frog (Rana tigrina): Habit and habitat, structure: digestive, circulatory, respiratory, Reproductive
BIOTA AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT
· Enviroment pollution: Air, water and Soil. Pollution and their effects and the control methods
· Animal Behaviour: Texes, reflexes and reflex action, dominance and leadership, migratory behaviour of fish and bird.
· Adoptation: Animal: Aquatic, amphibious and terrestrial (arboreal and volant)
1. Wildlife conservation: Meaning of wildlife, importance of wildlife, meaning of rare, treatened, vulnerable and endangered species; few endangered species in Nepal. Conservation practices (National Parks, wildlife reserves and hunting reserves), Ways of Conservation and causes of extinction.
Human responsibility for the protection of earth