Transition Metals & Iron

The elements of  ‘d’ block of periodic table including elements of Group IB to vii B. And viii are transition metals some important characteristics of transition metals are

·  They have general configuration (n-1)d1-10 ns1-2 . They have partially filled valence shell and penultimate shell.

·  Transition metals have strong metallic bond so they are heavy and herd. They have high mpt and bpt.

·  They are highly malleable and ductile they have high electrical and thermal conductivity.

·  They can absorb large quantity of the gases on their surface and this phenomenon is called occlusion. Because of this property these metals are used as catalyst in gaseous reaction.

·  Transition metals show variable oxidation state. For 3d, series, +2 is common O.S.

Eg.             Sc            →        +2 and +3

 Cu               →    +1 and +2

 Mn           →        +2,+3,+4,+5,+6 and +7


MnSO4, Mn2O3, Mno2, Mn2o5, K2Mno4/HMno4


·  Transition metal forms colored compounds. The color of compounds is determined by number of unpaired electrons in d-orbital species with some no of unpaired electrons have same color.

Eg. V4 + →         Cu4

(Ar)3d1 →            (Ar)3d9 both have blue color.

 1 Unpaired e+ 1 unpaired e

·  They transition metal and metal ions show paramagnetic nature. The magnetic moment depends upon the number of unpaired electrons in d-orbital.


·  Transition metal ion can from complex with ligands. The central metal provides empty orbitals into which ligands donates tone pair of electrons forming co-ordinate co-Volant bond.

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