Government finance is the deliberate manipulation of revenues and expenditures of the government. It is the financial plan of the government. The government uses the different types of revenues and expenditures as fiscal tools to achieve different objectives. The main objectives are high economic growth, price stability, favorable balance of trade and payment, equitable distribution of income and wealth, proper allocation of resources, balanced and stable economic growth and so on. The government should avoid inflation and deflation, recession or depression. Improper use of resources, price fluctuation, high inequality and so on. For all these things revenues and expenditures are increased and decreased as per the situation of the country.
Government finance has two sides, they are
- Government revenues
- Government expenditures
In government revenues, the money received by the government in the form of royalties, taxes, escheats, penalties, fines, cess etc are included. In the government expenditure we include development expenditure, administrative expenditures, diplomatic expenditure, difference expenditure, payments of public debts and interest and miscellaneous expenditure. They are used as fiscal tools to solve different economic problems.