Geology and different branches of science
Geology is the branch of science that deals with the study of earth, its history, structures and the process that act upon it.
Engineering geology includes:
- Evaluation of natural hazards.
- Evaluation of landscape for site selection.
- Evaluation of Earth’s resources for potential use.
Branches of Geology
Physical Geology: Deals with internal as well as external process that brings change in earth’s surface.
Geochemistry: Application of chemistry to the study of the earth materials and the cycling of chemicals throughout the system.
Crystallography: Deals with external form and internal atomic structures of crystalline minerals.
Mineralogy: Deals with the study of minerals, their composition, characteristics, mode of occurrence and origin.
Petrology: Deals with the origin, structures, texture and mineralogical composition of different types of rocks.
Hydrogeology: Refers to the study of groundwater and the geological processes of surface water.
Geomorphology: Examination of the development of present landforms.
Marine Geology: Related to the ocean environment.
Environmental Geology: Application of geological knowledge to practical problems.
Economic geology: Application of geological knowledge to find and recover materials that can be used profitably by humans.
Paleontology: Study of fossils.
Scope, objective and Importance of Engineering Geology
Scope of Engineering Geology:
- Nature of soil materials can be found.
- Useful for river control and construction of dams, highways.
- Provides knowledge about materials used in construction.
Importance of Engineering Geology:
- Can be used in locating natural resources.
- Can help us with flood control and other natural disasters.
- Helps us know how environment has evolved.
- Gives knowledge about hydrological cycle and climatic conditions.
Engineering geology according to IAEG
Engineering geology on the statutes of IAEG is defined as the science devoted to investigation, study and solution of environmental and engineering problems which may arise due to the interaction between the geology and human activities and also the prediction of or development of measures to control such hazards.
Compiled by: Abhash Acharya
Bibliography: Dhar, M.S. and Ghimire, P.C., 2006, Engineering Geology,
Swargadwari Offset Press, Sankhamul, Kathmandu.