An atom or group of atoms or radical which is responsible for the entire
chemical properties of an organic compound is called a functional group.
An atom or group of atoms in a molecule that gives the molecule
its characteristic chemical properties is called a functional group.
|Active part of an organic compound which takes part in chemical reaction is always a functional group.|
Generally an organic compound is composed of two parts.
Hydrocarbon part of an organic compound is chemically inert and the other part which is active is called functional group.
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND THEIR FUNCTIONAL GROUPS
TYPES OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
|Organic compounds are divided on to two major categories:|
OPEN CHAIN COMPOUNDS OR ACYCLIC COMPOUNDS
CLOSED CHAIN COMPOUNDS OR CYCLIC COMPOUNDS
OPEN CHAIN COMPOUNDS
|Organic compounds which have open chain skeleton are known as aliphatic compounds.|
CLOSED CHAIN COMPOUNDS
|Organic compounds containing closed ring are known as cyclic compounds.|
TYPES OF CYCLIC COMPOUNDS
|HOMOCYCLIC OR CARBOCYCLIC COMPOUNDS:|
|When ring of compound consists of carbon atoms only, the compound is said to be “homocyclic or carbocyclic compound”.|
When ring of compound consist of carbon as well as any other element,
the compound is said to be “heterocyclic compounds”.
Cyclic compounds which contain at least one atom of another element in
addition to carbon in the ring are referred to as “heterocyclic compounds”
|Homocyclic compounds are divided in to two types.|
|Homocyclic compounds which resemble aliphatic compounds and do not contain benzene ring are termed as “Alicyclic compounds”.|
|Homocyclic compounds containing benzene ring are known as “Aromatic compounds”.|
|When high molecular mass long chain alkanes are subjected to heat above their boiling point, they are broken down to produce smaller alkanes, alkenes and hydrogen. This thermal decomposition is called “cracking”.|
Cracking involves splitting of larger alkanes of less volatile in to smaller molecules of high volatility on heating at high temperature and pressure in the presence of catalyst.
TYPES OF CRACKING
|In catalytic cracking, a catalyst such as silica or aluminum or zeolite is used.|
2CH3-CH2-CH3 CH3-CH=CH2 + CH2=CH2+CH4 +H2
INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF CRACKING
| Gasoline Production.|
Fuel gas Production.
Synthetic petrol Production.
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