Ethane



CHEMISTRY OF ETHANE
INTRODUCTION
 Molecular formula = C2H6
 Molecular mass = 30
 Empirical formula = CH3
 Empirical formula mass = 15
 State: Gas at room temperature.
 Occurrence: Ethane occurs along with methane in natural gas and gases from oil-wells. It is also      present in coal gas in very small quantity.
ORBITAL STRUCTURE OF ETHANE
 Composition of ethane molecule:
  Ethane molecule consists of two carbon atoms and six H-atoms (C2H6 ).
 Nature of Hybridization:
  In ethane each C-atom is Sp3-hybridized containing four Sp3-hybrid orbitals. One s-orbital and three  
  
p-orbitals (px, py, pz) undergo Sp3-hybridization to produce four Sp3-hybrid orbitals for each carbon    atom.
 Sigma bond formation:
  Out of four Sp3-hybrid orbitals one Sp3-hybrid orbital of one C-atom overlaps with one s-orbital of
   H-atom to produce three sigma bond and the last overlaps with one Sp3-orbital of other C-atom to   produce a sigma bond between two C-atoms.
 Geometry of ethane:
  Ethane molecule is arranged in tetrahedral geometry in which central carbon atoms are surrounded by   H-atoms in three dimensions.
 
  Bond angles:
  HCH bond angle is 109.5o.
  Bond length:
  C-H bond length is 1.09Ao and C-C bond length is 1.54Ao.
METHODS OF PREPARATION
 FROM WURTZ REACTION
  2CH3I + 2Na  C2H6 +2NaI
 FROM GRIGNARD’S REAGENT
  Ethane may be obtained by the hydrolysis of ethyl magnesium iodide.
  C2H5-Mg-I + HOH  C2H6 + Mg-OH-I
 FROM ETHYL IODIDE
  C2H5-I + 2[H]  C2H6 + HI
 BY THE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF ETHYL IODIDE
  C2H5-I + H C2H6 + HI
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
 COMBUSTION REACTION
 Ethane burns in air or oxygen with a non-luminous flame to produce carbon dioxide and water. It is an    exothermic
  2C2H6 + 7O 4CO2 + 6H2O + HEAT
 HALOGENATION
 Replacement of halogen with H-atom of an organic compound is called Halogenation. It is a    substitution reaction.
  CHLORINATION:
 C2H6 + Cl C2H5Cl  C2H4Cl2+ Cl-CH2-CH2-Cl
 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
 It is colorless gas.
 Its boiling point is -89oC.
 It is sparingly soluble in water.

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