Chemistry Class 11 & 12 All



Chemistry
Grade: XI

I. Introduction


Full Marks: 100(75 T+25P) 
Pass Marks: 27T+10P 
Teaching Hours: 150T+50P


Chemistry is concernedwith the physical and chemical characteristics of substances, the nature of matter and the study of chemical reactions. Chemistry, thus, is a powerful process of uncovering and extending our understanding ofvarious chemical phenomena. The power resides in the combination of concepts and experiments involving careful observation and quantitative measurements under controlled conditions. The resulting concepts suggest furtherexperiments and investigations as a result; there will be a modification of theexisting concept leading to a creativity of thought. This creativity involvesthe recognition of a problem; formulationof ideas to solve the problem and ultimately refinement of the original ideas. The present curriculum aims to foster this uniqueness among studentsby enabling them to study both theoretical and practical aspects of chemistry.

This course is theorycum-practical. It is intended to consolidate learningin chemistry achieved in the secondaryschool. Furthermore, itintends to providea concrete knowledgeand appropriate skills for those students,continuing further studies in chemistry and the studentsnot studying the subject beyond this stage. The course seeks to maintaina balance between useful facts, concepts and theories which will facilitate understanding of the properties of substances, reactions and processes. Emphasis is enforcedto stimulate, create and sustainstudents’ interest in chemistry.

Chemistry being an experimental science,laboratory is an essential componentof its syllabus. The course intends to make students aware of the importance of scientific method for accurate experimental work and develop the abilitiesto interpret, organize and evaluatedata in order to make decisions and solve problems.

II. General  Objectives

The general objectives of this courseare to:

1.   apply appropriate chemical principles, concepts,theories, definitions, laws, models and patterns to interpret, draw conclusion, make generalization, and predictions from chemical facts, observations and experimental data;
2.   select appropriate facts to illustrate a given principle, concept, theory,model and pattern;

3.   present chemical ideasin a clear and logicalform; and

4.   select and organizedata and performcalculations in which guidanceon the method is not supplied.

III. Specific Objectives`

After studying the course,the student shall be able to:

1.   state and apply fundamental facts and principles of chemistry dealing with the

I.    Methods of preparation: general, laboratory and industrial process of the matters, II.  Physical and chemical properties,

III. Important applications.

2.   perform chemical calculations;

3.   identify the mineral resources of Nepal;

4.   understand chemical patterns and principles;

5.   apply knowledge and understanding of chemistry in familiar and unfamiliar situations;

6.   make accurate observations and measurements, being aware of possiblesources of error;

7.   record the  results of  experiments accurately and clearly; draw  conclusion and make generalization from experiment ; and

8.   appreciate the scientific, social , economic, environmental and technological contributions and applications of chemistry.

General  &Physical Chemistry  (Section A)

Unit 1: Language  of Chemistry (Review Lecturers)                         – 3 teaching hours

1    Chemical equations, their significances and limitations

2    Balancing chemical equations by :

i. hit and trail method       ii. Partialequation method

3    Types of chemical reaction

Unit 2: ChemicalArithmetic                                                                 – 17 teaching hours

2.1 Dalton’s  atomic theoryand Laws of Stoichiometry:

1    Postulates of Daltons atomic theory

2    Law of conservation of mass


3    Law of constant proportions

4    Law of multiple proportions

5    Law of reciprocal proportions

6    Law of gaseous volumes

7    Chemical calculations based on stoichiometry

2.2. Atomic Mass and MolecularMass:

Definition of atomic mass and molecularman

1    Mole concept

2    Mole in term of mass, volume numberand ions

3    Calculation basedon mole concept

2.3. Empirical,  Molecular Formula and LimitingReactants:

1    Percentage compositions

2    Derivation of empiricaland molecular formula from percentage composition

3    Chemical calculation based on following chemical equation

–     Limiting reactants

–     Mass-mass relationship

–     Volume – volume relationship

–     Mass volume relationship

(Solving reacted numerical problems))

2.4. Avogadro’s Hypothesis and Its Applications:

1    Development of Avogardros hypothesis

2    Definition of Avogadro’s hypothesis

3    Application of Avogadros hypothesis

i.          Deduction of atomicity of elementary gas

ii.         Deduction of relationship between molecularmass and vapour density iii.            Deduction of molar volume of gases

iv.        Deduction of molecular formula from its volumetric composition

(Solving related numerical problems)

2.5. Equivalent Masse:

1    Concept of equivalent mass

2    Equivalent weight  of  elements, and  compounds  (Salt,  acid  ,  base,  oxidising agents, reducing agents)

3    Gram equivalent weight (GEW)

4    Relation betweenequivalent weight, valency and atomic weight

5    Determinationof equivalent weight of metal by

i. Hydrogen displacement method                  ii. Oxide formation method

(Solving related numerical problems)


Unit 3: State of Matter                                                                         – 14 teaching hours

3.1. Gaseous State:

1    Boyles law

2    Charles law and Kelvin scaleof temperature

3    application of Charles law and Boyles law

4    Combined gas law, ideal gas equation and universal gas constant

5    Daltons law of partial pressure

6    Mathematicalderivation of Daltons law and their applications

7    Grahams law of diffusion and its applications

8    Kinetic model of gas and its postulates

9    Ideal and real gases

10  Deviation of gas from ideal behaviour

(Solving related numerical problems)

3.2 Liquid State:

1    Physical properties of liquid

i.    Evaporationand condensation

ii.  Vapour pressure of liquid and boiling iii. Surfacetension

iv. Viscosity

2    Solution and solubility:

i.    Equilibrium in saturatedsolution

ii.  Solubility and solubility curve and its applications. (Solving relatednumerical problems)

3.3. Solid Statem:

1    Crystalline and amorphoussolids

2    Water of crystallization

3    Effloresences

4    Deliquesces

5    Hygroscopic

6    Seven types of crystal system

7    Simple cubic, face centered and body centered

Unit 4: Atomic Structure                                                                       – 10 teaching hours

1    Discovery of fundamental particlesof atom (electron, proton and neutron)

2    Concept of atomic number, mass number, fractional atomic mass, isotopes, isobars

3    Rutherford’s α ray scattering experiment and nuclear model of atom; limitation

4    Bohrs model of atom and explanation of hydrogen spectra

5    Limitationof Bohrs model of atom

6    Elementaryidea of quantum mechanical model


i.    Dual nature of electron (de-Broglie equation)

ii.  Heisenbergs uncertainty principle iii. Probability concept

7    Shape of atomic orbital(s and p orbitals only)

8    Quantum numbers

9    Paulis exclustionprinciple

10  Hunds ruleof maximum multiplicity

11  Aufbau principle and Bohr Bury rule

12  Electronic configuration of the atoms and ions(Z = 1 to 30)

Unit 5: NuclearChemistry                                                                                   – 3 Teaching hours

1    Concept radioactivity

2    Radioactive rays (alpha ray, beta ray & gamma ray)

3    Meaning of natural and artificial radioactivity

4    Nuclear reactions, Nuclear energy (fission and fusion)

5    Nuclear isotopesand uses

Unit 6: Electronic Theory of Valency and Bonding                                               – 8 teaching hours

1    Basic assumption of electronic theory of valency

2    Octet rule

3    Ionic bonds, ionic compounds and characteristics of ionic compounds. Lewis symbol to represent the formation of ionic compounds

4    Covalent bonds, covalentcompounds and characteristics of covalent compounds Lewis structure of some typical covalent compounds

5    Co-ordinate  covalent  bonds.  Lewis  structures  of  some  typical  co-ordinate  covalent compounds

6    Exception of the octet rule

7    Partial ionic characters of covalent compounds. Non-polarand polar covalentmolecules

8    Dipole moments and its application

9    Some special types of bonds: hydrogen bond and its types, metallicbond, vander Waals bond, Resonance and resonance hybrid structures of O3, SO3, SO2, CO32, SO42, PO42, NO3

10  Classification of crystalline solids
i. Ionic solid
ii. Covalent solid
iii. Molecular solid
iv. Metallic solid
Unit 7: PeriodicClassification  of Elements                                                  – 6 teaching hours

1.   Introduction

2.   Mendeleevs periodic law and periodictable

3.   Anamolies of Mendeleevs periodic table

4.   Modern periodic law, and modern periodictable


5.   Advantages of modern Periodictable

6.   Division of elements into s,p, d and f blocks

7.   Periodicity of physical properties: valency , atomic radii, ionic radii ionisation energy,electron affinity and electronegativity (general trends only)

Unit 8: Oxidationand Reduction                                                                   – 6 teaching hours

1    Classical conceptof oxidation and reduction

2    Electronic interpretation of oxidation and reduction

3    Oxidation number and rules for theassignment of oxidation number

4    Differentiate betweenoxidation number and valency

5    Oxidising and reducing agent

6    Redox reaction

            7 Balancing redox reactions by 

i. oxidation number method 
ii. ion-electron method

Unit 9: Equilibria                                                                          – 5 teaching hours

1.   Introduction

2.   Equilibrium involving in physical change

3.   Chemical equilibrium

–     Reversible and irreversible reactions

–     Dynamic nature of chemical equilibrium and its characteristics

–     Law of mass action

–     Equilibrium constant (Kc) andits characteristics

–     Homogenous and heterogeneousequilibrium

–     Relation betweenKp and Kc (derivation)

–     Le-chateliers principle and its application

(No numerical is required)

Inorganic Chemistry

Section B


Unit 10: Non – Metals I                                                                  – 12 teaching hours

10.1 Hydrogen:

1    Position in periodic table

2    Atomic hydrogen , Nascent hydrogen

3    Isotopes of hydrogen

4    Ortho and Para hydrogen

5    Applications

10.2. Oxygen:


1    Position in periodic table

2    Types of oxides

3    Uses of oxygen

10.3. Ozone:

1    Occurrence

2    Preparation from oxygen

3    Structure of ozone

4    Importantproperties of ozone

5    Ozone layer and ozone hole

6    Uses of ozone

10.4. Water:

1    Structure

2    Solvent propertyof water

3    Heavy water and uses

4    Uses

10.5 Nitrogen and Its Compounds:

1    Position of nitrogen in Periodic table

2    Uses of nitrogen

3    Types of nitrogen oxides (name and Lewis structure)

4    Ammonia

–     manufacture by Habers synthesis method

–     Physical properties,chemical properties and uses

5    Oxyacids of nitrogen (type)

6    Technical production of nitric acid by Ostwald method

–     Properties of nitricacid and uses.

–     Test of nitrate ion

Unit 11: Non-MetalsII                                                          – 23 teaching hours

11.1 Halogens: (Chlorine, Bromineand Iodine)

1    Position in periodic table

2    Comparativestudy on: preparation, properties and uses

3    Manufactureof bromine from carnallite process and manufacture of iodineform i. sea weeds (principle only)                             ii. caliche (Principle only)

4    Uses of halogens

5    Comparativestudy on ; preparation, properties and uses of haloacids (HCl, HBr andHI)


11.2. Carbon:

1    Position in periodic table

2    Allotropes of carbonincluding fullerenes

3    Laboratory preparation, properties and uses of carbon monoxides

11.3. Phosphorous:

1    Occurrence, positionin periodic table

2    Allotropes of phosphorous and uses of phosphorus

3    Preparation, properties and uses of phosphine

4    Oxides and oxyacidsof phosphorous (structure and uses)

5    Preparation, properties and uses of orthophospheric acid

11.4. Sulphur:

Position in periodic table and allotropes

1    Hydrogen Sulphide: (Laboratory methods and Kipps apparatus), properties and uses of

2    Sulphurdioxide : Laboratory preparation, preparation and uses

3    Sulphuric acid:Manufacture by contact process, properties and uses

4    Sodiumthiosulphate (hypo): formula and uses

.

11.5. Boron and Silicon:

1    Occurrences, positionin periodic table

2    Properties and uses

3    Formula and uses ofburax, boric acid, Silicate and Silica

11.6. Noble gas: Positionin periodic table,occurrence and uses

11.7. Environmental Pollution:

– Air pollution, photochemical smog

– Acid rain, water pollution

– Green house effect

Unit 12: Metal and Metallurgical Principles                                  – 6 teaching hours

1    Characteristics of metals, non-metals and metalloids

2    Minerals and ores

3    Importantminerals deposit in Nepal

4    Different process involved in metalurgical process

5    Concentration

6    Calcination and roasting

7    Smelting

8    Carbon reduction process


9    Thermite process

10  Electrochemical reduction

11  Refining of metals: poling,electro-refinement etc

Unit 13: Alkali and AlkalineEarthMetals                                                   – 10 teaching hours

1     Periodic discussion and general characteristics.

2     Sodium: Occurrence,Extraction from Downs process; properties and uses.

3     Sodium hydroxide: Manufacture, properties and uses.

4     Sodium carbonate: Manufacture, properties and uses.

13.1 Alkaline Earth Metals:

1    Periodic discussion and general characteristics

2    Preparation, properties and uses of           i.quick lime,  ii. plaster of Paris iii. bleaching powder,              iv. magnesia                v. Epsom salt.



Organic Chemistry
Section C
Unit 14: Introduction toOrganic  Chemistry



14.1 Fundamental Principles:                                                                        – 6 teaching hours

1    Definition of organic chemistry and organiccompounds

2    Origin of organic compounds (vitalforce theory)

3    Reasons for the separatestudy of organic compounds

4    Tetra covalency and catenation propertyof carbon

5    Classification of organic compounds

6    Functional groups and homologous series

7    Meaning of empirical formula, molecular formula, structural formula and contracted formula

8    Qualitative analysis of organic compounds. (detection of N,S and halogens by Lassaegnes test)

14.2. Nomenclature of Organic  Compounds:                                                        – 6 teaching hours

1    Common names

2    IUPAC  system  and  IUPAC  rules  of  naming  hydrocarbons,  alcohols,  ethers,  aldehydes,  Ketones carboxylic acid, amines, ester,acid derivative halogenderivatives, nitriles etc.)

14.3. Structure Isomerism  in Organic  Compounds:                                             – 2 teaching hours

1    Definition of structure isomerism


2    Types  of  structure  isomerism:  chain  isomerism,  position,  isomerism,  functional  isomerism  and metamerism

14.4 Preliminary Idea of Reaction Mechanism                                   – 2 teaching hours

1    Concept of homolytic and herterolytic fission

2    Electrophile , nucleophiles and free- radicals

3    Inductive effect,+I and –I effect

Unit 15: Hydrocarbons

15.1 Sources:                                                                                  – 4 teaching hours

Origin of coal and petroleum , hydrocarbon from petroleum cracking and reforming , aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon form coal, quality of gasoline, octane member and gasoline additive.

15.2 Alkanes (Saturated Hydrocarbons):

1    General methods of preparations :

–     Decarboxylation

–     Catalytic hydrogenation

–     Reduction of haloalkane

–     Kolbes electrolysis method

–     Using Grigrands reagent

–     Wurtz reaction

–     From aldelydes and ketones

2    Physical properties

3    Chemical properties: Substitutions reaction, oxidation, pyrolysis or cracking aromatization

15.3. Alkenes :                                                                                 – 4 teaching hours

1    General methods of preparation

–     Dehydration of alcohol

–     Dehydrohalogenation

–     Catalytic hydrogenation of alkyne

–     Kolbes electrolysis

2    Laboratory preparation of alkene

3    Chemical properties of alkene: Addition reaction( H2,X2,HX, H2O, O3, H2SO4)

4    Oxidation with alkalineKMnO4 (Baeyers reaction)

5    Polymerisation

6    Test of etheneand uses


15.4. Alkynes :

Ethyne

– 3 teaching hours


1    Preparation form i. carbon and hydrogen             ii. Kolbes electrolysis iii. 1,2 dibromoethane


2    Lab preparation of ethyne

3    Physical properties

4    Chemical properties: Addition (H2,X2, HX, H2O,O3), Acidic nature (action with ammonicalAgNO3 and ammonical Cu2Cl2), Oxidation with alkalineKMnO4, Polymerizationuses of ethyne

Practical

Full Marks: 25

Pass Marks: 10

Students are requiredto secure the pass marks in the practical paperseparately. The following is the list ofexperiments. The students are requiredto perform in the practical classesin Grade XI.

A. Experiments based on laboratory techniques:

1.   To separate the insoluble component in pure and dry state from the given mixture of solubleand insoluble solids. (NaCl and sand)

2.   To separate volatilecomponent form the given mixture of volatile and non volatile(demonstration of sublimation process)

3.   To separatea mixture of two soluble solids by fractional crystallization (KNO3 + NaCl)

4.   To prepare a saturated solution of impure salt and obtain the pure crystal of the same salt by

crystallization

5.   To separatethe component of a mixture of two insoluble solids (The being solublein dil acids)

6.   To obtainpure water from given sampleof water (Distillation).

B.Experiment to study the different  reactions (Neutralization, Precipitation, Redox reaction,  electrolysis):

7.   To performprecipitation reaction of BaCl2and H2SO4 andobtain solid BaSO4;

8.   To neutralize sodium hydroxide with hydrochloric acid solution and recover the crystal of sodium

chloride

9.  To test the ferrous ions in the given aqueous solution and oxidise it to ferric ion
(Ferrous → Ferric system) Redox Reaction
10. To study the process of electrolysis and electroplating.

C. Experiments on quantitative analysis:

11. To determine the equivalent weight or weight of metal by hydrogen displacement method;

12. To determine the solubility of the given solublesolid at laboratory temperature;

13. To determine the relative surfacetension of unknown liquid by drop count method;and

14. To study the rate of flow of liquid through Ostwald’sviscometer and determine the relative viscosity of unknown liquid.


D. Experiments onpreparation of gas and study of properties:

15. To prepare and collect hydrogengas and study the following properties;

a.   Solubility with water,colour, odour;

b.   Litmus test;

c.   Burning match stick test; and

d.   Reducing properties of nascent hydrogen.

16. To prepare and collect ammoniagas and investigate the following properties:

a.   Solubility with water/ colour / odour;

b.   Litmus test;

c.   Action with copper sulphate solution;and d.   Action with mercurousnitrate paper.

17. To prepare carbondioxide gas and investigatethe following properties:

a.      Solubility,colour, odour;

b.      Litmus paper test;

c.      Lime water test; and

d.     Action with burning magnesium ribbon.

18. To study the properties of hydrogen sulphide (Physical, analytical and reducing);

19. To study the following properties of sulphuric acid:
a. Solubility with water;
b. Litmus paper test;
c. Precipitating reaction;and d. Dehydrating reaction.

E. Experiments on qualitative  analysis:

20. To detect the basic radicalof the given salt by dry way and the acid radical by dry and wet ways.

Basic radicals: Zn++, Al+++, NH4+ , Ca++, Na+

Acid radicals: CO3, SO4, NO3, Br, I, Cl

Note: Experiment from no 1 to 19 requires one practical period of each experiment and the experiment no

20 requires four practical periods. (Two theoryperiods will be equivalent to one practical period)


Evaluation Scheme
The chemistry theory paper  (XI) will consist of threetypes of questions:

(a)Very short-answer questions (weightage of 2 marks of each); (b) Short-answer questions (weightage of 5 marks of each); and (c) Long- answer questions (weightage of 10 marks of each).

According to manner of questions groupsare divided into group ‘A’, group ‘B’ and group ‘C’.

1    Group A will consist of twenty two (22) very short questions, out of which, examinees are required to answer only fifteen(15) questions.

2    Group B will consist of seven (7) short questions, out of which examinees are required to answer five (5) questions.

3    Group ‘C’ will consist of four (4) questions, out of which examinees are required to answer2 questions.


The weightage of content distribution for the three types of questions form different sections of the

curriculum will be as follows:

Units

Teaching

hours

V.S.Q.

S.Q.

L.Q.

1

3

×

2

17

2

3

14

2

4

10

2

5

3

1

6

8

2

7

6

1

8

6

1

9

5

1

10

12

2

11

23

2

12

6

1

13

10

1

14

16

2

15

11

2

Total

15

150

22

7

4

Prescribe  textbook To be written.

Reference books




Chemistry
Grade: XII

I. Introduction


Full Marks: 100(75 T+25P) 
Pass Marks: 27T+10P 
Teaching Hours: 150T+50P


Chemistry is concernedwith the physical and chemical characteristics of substances, the nature of matter and the study of chemical reactions. Chemistry, thus, is a powerful process of uncovering and extending our understanding ofvarious chemical phenomena. The power resides in the combination of concepts and experiments involving careful observation and quantitative measurements under controlled conditions. The resulting concepts suggest furtherexperiments and investigations as a result, there will be a modification of theexisting concept leadingto a creativity of thought. This creativity involves the recognition of a problem; formulation of ideas to solve the problem and ultimately refinement of the original ideas. The present curriculum aims to foster this uniqueness among studentsby enabling them to study both theoretical and practical aspects of chemistry.

This course is theorycum-practical. It is intended to consolidate learningin chemistry achieved in the secondaryschool. Furthermore, itintends to providea concrete knowledgeand appropriate skills for those students,continuing further studies in chemistry and the studentsnot studying the subject beyond this stage. The course seeks to maintaina balance between useful facts, concepts and theories which will facilitate understanding of the properties of substances, reactions and processes. Emphasis is enforcedto stimulate, create and sustainstudents’ interest in chemistry.

Chemistry being an experimental science,laboratory is an essential componentof its syllabus. The course intends to make students aware of the importance of scientific method for accurate experimental work and develop the abilitiesto interpret, organize and evaluatedata in order to make decisions and solve problems.

II. General  Objectives

The general objectives of this courseare to:

1.   apply appropriate chemical principles, concepts,theories, definitions, laws, models and patterns to interpret, draw conclusion, make generalization, and predictions from chemical


facts, observations and experimental data;

2.   select appropriate facts to illustrate a given principle, concept, theory,model and pattern;

3.   present chemical ideasin a clear and logicalform; and

4.   select and organizedata and performcalculations in which guidanceon the method is not supplied.

III. Specific Objectives

After studying the course, the student shallbe able to :

1.   state and apply fundamental facts and principles of chemistry dealing with the

i.          Methods of preparation: general, laboratory and industrial process of the matters, ii.            Physical and chemical properties,

iii.        Importantapplications.

2.   perform chemical calculations;

3.   identify the mineral resources of Nepal;

4.   understand chemical patterns and principles;

5.   apply knowledge and understanding of chemistry in familiar and unfamiliar situations;

6.   make accurate observations and measurements, being aware of possiblesources of error;

7.   record the  results of  experiments accurately and clearly; draw  conclusion and make generalization from experiment ; and

8.   appreciate the scientific, social , economic, environmental and technological contributions and applications of chemistry.

General  &Physical Chemistry  (Section A)

Unit 1: ChemicalBonding and Shape of Molecules                                    – 3 teaching hours

1       Hybridization and concept of sigma and pi bond

2       Valence shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory

3       Prediction  of  molecular  geometry  (Shape  of  molecules)  on  the  basis  of  VSEPR  and hybridization. (BeF2,BF3, NH3,H2O, CH4, H2O, C2H2 C2H4 H2S)

Unit 2: Volumetric  Analysis                                                                          – 8 teaching hours

1       Different ways of expressing the concentrationof solutions
i. Molarity,
ii. Normality 
iii. Molality
iv. Gram /Litre 
v. Percentage
2 Titration :
i. acid-base titration
ii. Redox titration

3       Primary standardsubstances, primary standard solution, secondary standardsolution, end point, equivalence point, neutral point,indicators

4       Derivation of normality equation

5       Relation between normality and molarity

6       Selection of indicators in acid-base titration and PH curve

7       Solving relatednumerical problems

Unit 3: Ionic Equilibrium                                                              – 12 teaching hours

1    Introduction

2    Ionization of weakelectrolyte (Ostwalds dilutionlaw)

3    Degree of ionization and ionization constant

4    Strength of acidsand base interm of Ka, Kb and pKa andpKb values

5    Acid-base concept

i.    Arrhenius concept of acids and bases.

ii.  Bronsted lowrry concept of acidsand bases iii. Lewis conceptof acids and bases.

6    Ionization of water,pH and pH scale.

7    Hydrolysis of salts. (qualitative concept)

8    Solubility productprinciple and its application

9    Common ion effects and its application

10  Application of solubility product principle in qualitative analysis

11  Buffer Solution

(Solving numerical problems related with solubility, solubility product, pH and pOH)

Unit 4: Electrochemistry                                                         – 10 teaching hours

1    Introduction

2    Electrolysis; strong and weak electrolyte

3    Arrehenius theoryof ionization

4    Faradays laws of electrolysis


5    Criteria of product formation duringelectrolysis

6    Electrolytic conduction, equivalent and molar conductivities

7    Variation of conductivity with concentration

8    Electrode   potential,    standard   electrode   potential,standard   hydrogen    electrode   and   its applications

9    Eletrochemical series and its use to predict the feasibility of redox reactions

10  Electrochemical cell (Galvanic cell)

11  EMF of electrochemical cell in the standardstate

(Solving related numerical problems)

Unit 5: Energetics  of Chemical Reactions                        – 8 teaching hours

1    Introduction , unit of energy

2    Some thermodynamical terms: system,surrounding , boundary , universe differenttypes of system, state function,state variables and internalenergy

3    Exchange of energy between the systemand surrounding

4    Different typesof thermodynamic process

5    The first law of thermodynamics

6    Sign convention of heat and work

7    Enthalpy, enthalpychange in chemical reactions

8    Hesss lawof constant heat summation

9    Heat of neutralization, heat of solution, heat of combustion, heat of vapourization, heat of formation and bond energy

(Solving related numerical problems)

Unit 6: Chemical Thermodynamics                                        – 6 teaching hours

1    Spontaneous process

2    Second law of thermodynamics

3    Entropy and its physicalconcept

4    Entropy changein phase transformation

5    Entropy and spontaneity

6    Entropy changesand their calculation

7    Gibbs freeenergy and prediction for the feasibility of reaction

8    Standard free energy changeand equilibrium constant


9    Influence of temperature on spontaneous process

(Calculation involving in standard free energy changeand equilibrium constant)

Unit 7: Chemical Kinetics                                                       – 10 Teaching hours

1    Concept of reaction rate

2    Average rate and instantaneousrate of a reaction

3    Factors that influences the rate of reaction

4    Rate law equation, rate constant and its units

5    Ist order, IInd order, IIIrd order and zero order reactions

6    Order and molecularity of a reaction

7    Integrated rate law for a first order reaction

8    Half-life of a reaction (first order)

9    Explainingthe increase in reactionrate with temperature or collision theory (qualitative concept only)

10  Concept of activation energy as the energy barrier, activated complex and effect of catalyst on the rate of reaction

(Solving related numerical problems)



Organic Chemistry
Section B
Unit 8: Aromatic  Hydrocarbon                                              – 3 teaching hours

1    Definition,  characteristics  of  aromatic  compounds,  Huckels  rule,  structure  of  benzene, isomerism and orientation of benzene derivatives

2    Preparation of benzenes from

i. decarboxylation    ii. phenol         iii. ethyne                    iv. chlorobenzene

3    Physical propertiesof benzene

4    Chemical properties of benzene

i.    Addition reaction: hydrogen, halogenand ozone


ii.  Electrophilic substitution reactions: nitration,sulphonation,      halogenation Friedal crafts alkylation and acylation

iii. Combustionof benzene and uses

Unit 9: Haloalkanes  and Haloarenes                                                            – 8 teaching hours

Chemistry  in Service to Mankind9.1. Haloalkanes:

1             Introduction, classification and isomerism

2             Preparation of monohaloalkanes from alkanes, alkenesand alcohols

3             Physical properties of monohaloalkanes

4             Chemical properties

–              Substitution reactions

–              Eliminationreaction (dehydrohalogenation)

–              Grignards reactions

–              Reduction reactions

–              Wurtzs reaction

5             Polyhaloalkane ;

–              Laboratory preparation of trichloromethane from ethanol and proponone

–              Physical properties of trichloromethane

–              Chemical properties : oxidation reduction, action on Silver Powder, con. nitric  acid,  propanone,  aqueous  alkali,  Carbylamine  reaction  ,  Remer Tiemann reaction, Iodiform reaction, etc.

9.2. Haloarenes:

        Preparation of chlorobenzene from i. benzene            ii. benzenediazonium chloride

     Physical properties

     Chemical properties

–     Low reactivity of haloarene as compound to haloalkane in term of nucleophilic substitution reaction

–     Reduction of chlorobenzene

–     Electrophilic substitutre reactons

–     Action with Na, Mg and chloral etc.

–     Uses


Unit 10: Alcohols and Phenols                                                 – 10 teaching hours

10.1. Alcohols:

1    Introduction, classification, nomenclatureand isomerism

2    Distinction of primary, secondary and tertiary alcoholby Victor Mayers Method

3    Preparation of monohydricalcohols form       i. haloalkane    ii.     Grignards     reagents using aldehydes and ketones  iii. primary amines    iv. Ester

4    Industrialpreparation ethanol form:  i. Oxoprocess  ii. Fermentationof sugar iii. hydroboration of ethane

5    Physical properties monohydric alcohols

6    Chemical properties of monohydric alcohols

–     Reaction with HX. PX3, PCl5 SOCl2

–     Action with reactive metals like Na, K, Li

–     Esterification process

–     Dehydration of alcohols.

–     Oxidation of primary, secondary and tertiaryalcohol with oxidizing agents.

–     Reduction of alcohols (Catalyic dehydrogenation)

–     Laboratory test of ethanol

–     Absolute alcohol,methylated spirit,rectified spirit; alcoholic beverage.

                             Preparation and uses of ethan- 1, 2. diol (glycol)

                             Preparation and uses of Propan – 1, 2, 3 triol (glycerol)

10.2. Phenols:

1    Introduction to phenol

2    Preparation of phenolfrom i. chlorobenzene           ii.Diazonium salt and             iii. benzene sulphonic acid

3    Physical properties of phenol

4    Chemical properties

–     Acidic nature of phenol

–     Action with PCl5,PX3, NH3,Zn, Na benzene diazonium chlorideand phthalic anhydride

–     Acylation reaction, Kolbes reaction, Reimer Tiemanns reaction


–     Electrophilic     substitution:    halogenation,    nitration,    sulphonation, brominaiton and Friedal Crafts alkylation

–     Laboratory test of phenol

–     Uses of phenol

Unit 11:           Ethers                                                                     – 4 teaching hours

11.1 Aliphatic Ethers:

1    Introduction, nomenclature classification, isomerism in ether

2    Preparation of ethers from i. alcohol         ii.Williamsons etherification process

3    Laboratory preparation of ethoxy ethane form ethanol

4    Physical properties of ether

5    Chemical properties of etherxyethane

–     action with HI , PCl5, con. HCl, Conc. H2SO4 air and Cl2

–     Uses of ethoxy ethane

11.2 Aromatic  Ether:

– Preparation of methoxy benzene(anisole)

– Halogenation, nitration and sulphonation reactions

Unit 12: Aldehydesand Ketones                                                                             – 11 teaching hours

12.1 Aliphatic Aldehydes and Ketones

1    Introduction, structure of carbonylgroup, nomenclature and isomerism in carbonyl compound

2    Preparationof aldehydes and ketonesfrom

i.    Dehydrogenation and oxidation of alcohol ii.  Ozonolysis of alkenes

iii. Acid chloride

iv. Gem dihaloalkane

v.   Calalytic distillation of fatty acid vi. Distillaiton of salt of fatty acid vii. Calalyic hydration of alkynes


3    Physical properties

4    Chemical properties

i.    Addition reaction: addition of H2,HCN, NaHSO3 andGrignands reagents ii.   Actionwith ammonia derivatives; NH2OH, NH2-NH2, phenyl hydrazine,

semicarbazides and 2,4- DNP

iii. Reduction properties of aldelydes

– Oxidation with Tollens reagent, Fehlings solution

iv.Aldol or condensation reaction; clemennsons reduction Wolf- Kischner reduction, Action with PCl5, action with LiAlH4

v.   Special reaction of methenal;cannazzaros reaction, action with ammonia,

action with phenol.formalin and its uses

12.2 Aromatic  Aldelydes and Ketones :

        Preparation of benzaldelyde from toluene

        Properties of benzaldelyde

        Important reactionbenzaldelyde different form aliphatic aldelydes:

–                 Perkin condensation

–                 Benzoin condensation

–                 Electrophilic substitution reaction

–                 Cannizzaros reaction

        Preparation of acetophenone by Friedal Crafts acylation

Unit 13: Carboxylic  Acids                                                   – 10 teaching hours

13.1 Aliphatic Carboxylic  Acids:

 Introduction, nomenclature, examples

 Preparation of monocarboxylic acids from

i.aldehydes     ii. nitriles         iii. Grignard’s reagents            iv.dicarboxylic acid v. sodium alkoxide.         vi. trihaloalkanes

      Physicalproperties of monocarboxylic acids

Chemical  properties:  Action  with  alkalies  metal  oxides,  metal  carbonates,  metal


bicarbonates,  PCl3,  LiAlH4    and  dehydration  of  carboxylic  acid,  esterification, halogenation

Effect of constituents on the acidic strengthof carboxylic acid

Laboratory preparation of methanoicacid

abnormal behaviour of methanoic acid

Uses of carboxylic acid

13.2 Derivatives of Carboxylic  Acid:

1    Nomenclature, preparation and properties of i. Acid halides           ii. Acid amides iii.Acid anhydrides and                        iv. Esters

13.3 Aromatic  Carboxylic  Acids:

– Preparation of benzoic acid

– Physical and chemical properties

– Uses of benzoic acid

Unit 14: Nitrocompounds:                                                                             – 4 teaching hours

14.1 Aliphalic Nitrocompounds (Nitroalkane):

2    Introduction and nomenclature

3    Preparation from haloalkane and alkane

4    Physical properties

5    Reduction of nitroalkane

6    Uses

14.2 Aromatic  Nitrocompounds:

1    Laboratory preparation of nitrobenzene

2    Physical properties

3    Chemical properties

–     Reductionin different media

Electrophilic substitution reactions

Uses of nitrobenzene


Unit 15: Amino Compounds  (Amines and Aniline)           – 7 teaching hours

15.1 Aliphatic Amines:

1    Introduction, nomenclature and classification

2    Separation of primary , secondary and tertiary aminesby Hoffmanns method

3    Preparation of primary amines form haloalkane , nitriles, nitroalkanes and amides

4    Physical properties

5    Chemical Properties: basicity of amines, comparative study of basic nature of 10,20 and 30 amines. Reaction of Primary amines with chloroform, conc. HCl, R-X, RCOX andnitrous acid (NaNO2 / HCl)

6    Test of 10, 20 and 30 amines. (nitrous acid test)

15.2 Aromatic  Amine(Aniline):

1    Laboratory preparationof aniline

2    Physical properties

3    Chemical properties: bassicity of aniline, comparision of basic nature of aniline with aliphatic amines; alkylation , acylation , diazotization, carbylamine and couplingreaction

4    Electrophilic substitution : Nitration sulphonation and bromination

5    Uses of anitne

Unit 16: Molecules of Life                                                                             – 8 teaching hours

1    Carbohydrates: definition, classification of carbohydrates, variousexamples of carbohydrate of different class. structureand glucose and fructose, functionof carbohydrates , sugar and non- sugar

2    Protein  :definition,  amino  acid  ,  essential  and  non-essential  aminoacids,  peptide  linkage, hydrolysis of aminoacids, denaturation of protein, zwitter ions, functionsof aminoacids

3    Nucleic acid: definition, basic components of nucleic acid; doule helix, difference betweenRNA

and DNA; biologicalfunction of nucleic acid

4    Lipid: definition, fattyacids, fat as ester of fatty acid and difference betweenfats and oils, function of lipid

5    Enzymes and their functions


Unit 17: Chemistry  in Serviceto Mankind                                                  – 10 teaching hours

1    Polymer: definition, natural and syntheticpolymers, homopolymers and co-polymer Preparation of some polymers; PVC polyethene polystyreno Teflon, Nylon-66, Bakelite and their uses

2    Dyes: definition, naturaland synthetic dyes, names and structureof some common drug,drug addiction

3 Fertilizer: definition, chemical and organic fertilizers, nitrogen fertilizer, phosphatic fertilizer; fertilizer as pollution

4    Pesticides: insecticides, herbicides. weedicides and fungcides (examples and their uses)

Inorganic Chemistry
Section C
Unit 18: Heavy Metals                                                                  -18 teaching hours

1    General  Characteristics of Transition Metals

18.1. Copper:

1    Position in periodic table

2    Occurrence and extraction of copper form copperpyrites

3    Properties and uses

4    Chemistry of   (i) blue vitriol(ii) black oxide of copper         (iii) red oxide of copper

18.2 Zinc:

1    Position in periodic table

2    Occurrence and extraction of zinc from zinc blende

3    Properties and uses of copper

4    Preparation properties and uses of zinc white and white vitriol

5    Galvanization

18.3 Mercury:

1

Occurrence and extraction of Hg from Cinnabar

2

Properties of mercur

3

Mercury poisoning and uses of Hg

4

Preparation, properties and uses of     (i) Calomel

(ii) Corrosive Sublimate


18.4. Iron:

1    Occurrence and extraction

2    Varieties of Iron

3    Properties of Iron

4    Manufactureof Steel by i.     Bessemer process

ii.  Open hearth process

5    Heat treatment of steel

6    Stainless steel

7    Rusting of ironand its prevention

8    Uses and biological importance of iron

9    Structure and uses of green vitriol, Ferric chloride Mohrs salt

18.5. Silver:

1    Extraction of Silverby cyanide process and its uses

2    Preparation and uses of

iv.        Silver chloride v.       Silver nitrate


Practical


Full Marks: 25

Pass Marks: 10


Students are required to secure the pass marks in the practical paper separately from the theory paper. Thefollowing is the list of experiments. The students are required to perform in the practicalclasses in Grade XII.

A. Experiments based on recovery and preparation of salt.

1.      To recoverblue vitriol crystalfrom the givenmixture of copper sulphateand Sodium chloride;

2.      To recoverCaCO3 from the mixture of CaCO3 andMgCO3 (dolomite); and

3.      To obtainhydrated calcium sulphateform the given marble chips.

B. Experiments on volumetric  analysis (Titration)

4.      To prepareprimary standard solution of Na2CO3  and standardize the given acid solution HCl by the standard solution;


N

5.      To determine thestrength of approximate 10 of HCl supplied


NaOH solution with the help of standarddecimal solution


6.      To determine the strength of bench sulphuric acid (H2SO4) with the help of standard NaOH or Na2CO3

solution and expressthe concentration in (i) normality          (ii) molarity

(iii) gm/litre     (iv) percentage (Double titration)

N KMnO

10            4


7.      To standardize the given approximate

solution. (Redox titration) ;


solution with the help of primary standardoxalic


8.      To determine the enthalpy of neutralization of a strong acid and strong base;

9.      To complete salt analysis by dry and wet ways. (at least 3 salts);

10.    To detect foreign elements present in a given organic compounds. (N, S and X);

11.    To identifythe functional group present in the organiccompounds. (OH, -COOH, CHO, > CO, NH2);

and

12.    To test the presence of


a. Saturated or unsaturated fats, b. Carbohydrate, c. Proteins, d. Phenol.

Note:  The  experiment no.9 requires 4 practical periods.  The  experiment  no. 10 requires 3practical periods,  the experiment no. 11 requires 3 periods  and remaining experiments  require 1 period  of each. (2 theory periods will be equivalent to 1 practical period.)

Evaluation Scheme

The chemistry theory paper  (XII) will consistof three types of questions:

(a) Very short-answer questions (weightage of 2 marks of each); (b) Short-answer questions (weightage of 5 marks of each);

(c) Long- answer questions (weightage of 10 mark of each.)

According to nature of questions, groups are divided into group ‘A’, group ‘B’ and group ‘C’.

1    Group ‘A’ will consist of twenty two (22) very short questions,out of which, examinees are required to answer only fifteen (15) questions.

2    Group B’ will consist of seven (7) short questions,out of which examinees are required to answer five (5) questions.

3    Group  ‘C’  will  consist  of  four  (4)  questions,  out  of  which  examinee  are  required  to  answer  2 questions.

Theweightage of content distributionfor the three types of questions form different sections of the curriculum will be as follows:

Units

Teaching

hours

V.S.Q.

S.Q.

L.Q.

1

3

1

2

8

1


3

12

1

4

10

1

5

8

1

6

6

1

7

10

1

8

3

1

9

8

1

10

10

1

11

4

1

12

11

1

13

10

1

14

4

1

15

7

1

16

8

2

17

10

2

Inorganic Chemistry

18

18

3

1

0.5

Total

18

150

22

7

4

Prescribe textbook To be written.

Reference books