Chapter 4 » Importance of Organization | Business Studies – XII 

Importance of organization 1. Mechanism for management in action:- organization is not only a chart. It is a mechanism for management in action. So many management actions such as direction, motivation, coordination and control help ion organizing function. It also helps to manage the business firm with proper management actions 2. Facilitate in management and […]

Chapter 4 » Concept and Meaning of Organization | Business Studies – XII 

Concept and meaning of organization There are so many materials and people in an enterprise. Enterprise uses the manpower and materials for achieving the goals. Materials can be collected, established and coordinated. Manpower must be hired, trained, motivated and put at right place. Managers and workers must be clear about their authority and responsibility.  Organization […]

Chapter 4 » Meaning of Authority, Responsibility and Accountability | Business Studies – XII 

Meaning of authority, responsibility and accountability Meaning of authority Authority is the kind of right and power through which it guides and directs the actions of others so that the organizational goals can be achieved. It is also related with decision making. It is vested in particular position, not to the person because authority is […]

Meaning and Principle of Delegation of Authority 

Meaning of delegation of authority All activities are not performed by one person. Authority should be provided to the subordinates too. Process of transferring authority and creation of responsibility between superior and subordinates to accomplish a certain task is called delegation of authority. It can take place without decentralization. It can be withdrawn by delegator […]

Chapter 4 » Meaning and Needs of Decentralization | Business Studies – XII 

Meaning of decentralization of authority. Decentralization is delegation of and dispersion of authority from top executive to the low level administrator or it may be geographical dispersion of authority from central to many branches. It is not possible without delegation of authority. It prepares the organizational participants of the organization. It is both philosophy and […]

Chapter 4 » Factors affecting decentralization | Business Studies – XII 

Factors affecting decentralization of authority 1. Size– size of the organization, terms of sales number, plans, number of employees affects the decentralization of authority. It is observes that the speed and adequacy of decision making, flexibility and efficiency are enhanced through decentralization of authority in case of very large multi product, diverse and complex organization. […]

Chapter 4 » Difference between Delegation and Decentralization of Authority | Business Studies – XII 

Difference between delegation and decentralization of authority Bases Delegation of authority Decentralization of authority Nature Process of transferring authority and creation of responsibility between superior and subordinates is called delegation. It can take place without decentralization Decentralization is delegation of and dispersion of authority. It is not possible without delegation of authority    Purpose It […]

Chapter 4 » Meaning and Methods of Organization | Business Studies – XII 

Departmentation It is defined as a process of dividing small units of organizational activities. Departmentation may be called division sections branch etc. it helps to provide the specialization, develops the skill and knowledge of manpower and the efficiency of manpower of an enterprise will be increased. It specifies the area of the activities that facilitate […]

Chapter 12 » Process of Controlling | Business Studies – XII 

 Process of controlling 1. Establishing or setting standards– the first step of controlling is to set standard against which results can be measured. For setting standard, targeted results must be identified and it should be quantitative as far as possible. Quantitative term can make controlling effective. Standards […]

Chapter 12 » Importance of Controlling | Business Studies – XII 

Importance of controlling 1. Execution of plans– control helps in ensuring the performance of plans through regular examination and evaluation of performance of work that results the performance of activities for accomplishment of goals. 2. Helps in supervision– control helps in reducing deviation between standard performance and actual performance through effective control system established by […]