Botany XI | HSEB Notes



BIOLOGY – BOTANY

INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY
Biochemically important organic and inorganic Molecules (General Concepts):
          Carbohydrate, Protein, Lipid, nucleic acid, mineralsand water
CELL BIOLOGY
·         The Cell : The cell as a unit of Life, structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, Structure and functions of cell organelles and inclesions
·         Cell Division : Amitosis, mitosis, meiosis
Biodiversity
Introduction to Biodiversity; scope of biodiversity, flora diversity of Nepal, concept of taxonomy: classification, binomial nomenclature. Shortcoming of two classification, phylogeny. Five Kingdom classifications: Monera, Protista, Mycota, Plantae and Animalia.
·         Monera: General Account, structure and function of bacterial cells, concept of autotropic and heterotropic life styles, economic importance of bacteria
·         Cyanobacteria: Nostoc- Structure, reproduction and economic importance
·         Myocota: Concept of Zygomycetes, Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes.  || Structure and reproduction of Zygmycetes (Mucor), Ascomycetes (Yeast). || Economic importance of Fungi
·         Plantae:
Algae: Introduction of green, red and brown algae, structure and reproduction of Spirogyra.
Bryophyta: Marchantia and Funaria (morphology and life cycle).
Pteridophyta: Dryoteris (morphology and life cycle).
Gymnosperm: Brief morphological structure of Cycas amd Pinus structure and it’s distribution
Angiosperm: Morphology: root, steam, leaf, flower, fruit and seed relevant to the following families.
                           Taxonomy and economic importance of the following families; Cruciferance (Brassicaceae), Solanaceae, Leguminosae- Papilionoide only, Compositate (Asteraceae) and Gramineae (Poaceae).
Lichen: Introduction and ecnomic importance
Virus: Structure and economic importance
BIOTA AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT
·      Ecology: Defination, Abiotic, biotic factors and their interactions
·      Concept of Ecosystem, Pond and Grassland ecosystems: structural and functional aspects; food chain, tropical level, ecological pyramids, productivity, concept of community and succession.
·      Bio-geochemical cycle: carbon cycle and nitrogen cycle.
·      Ecological imbalance and it’s consequences: Green house effects, depletion of Ozone layer and acid rain
·      Concept of Mountain Ecosystem (altitudinal and climatic changes)
·      CONSERVATION
Forest Conservation: Brief introduction of forests of Nepal, importance of afforestation and hazards of deforestation. Management of land and water.

Recently Asked Questions:
Introduction and Process of Plant Succession