Biology & Botany Class 11 & 12 all



Biology 
Grade XI 
Teaching hour: 150

Full marks         : 75

Introduction

Biology, being the science of nature, deals the fascinating changes, which continuously take place in the living world. Every person is expected to understand the nature of which he is a part. One needs to be familiar with the changes taking place in nature. The study of biologyequips an individual to understand the living world in the light of new researches. Besides realizing the general objectives of any disciplineof science like development of scientific temper and analyticalskill, the curriculum in biology has also to be geared to meet the requirement of careers in the field of medicineand related disciplines (wildlife, forestry, agriculture, natural resources, environment, etc). This course is designed for general science (Biological and Physical) students of class XI.

General  objectives

The generalobjectives of this course are,

a.      to provide the concept of biology and encourage the learnersto use the acquired knowledge in day to day life;

b.      to make the learners awareof the present development in thebiological science as wellas to develop the knowledge and skill in the wise use of the available naturalresources and sustaining them; and

c.      to preparethe students to take up advance studiesin biology at universitylevel.

Specific Objectives

On completion of the course the students will be able to:

1.      describe the life components,origin of life and its evolutionup to present day;

2.      explain the cell components, their types and cell division;

3.      explain diversity of plant and animal;

4.      discuss functional processes of the typical animal types;

5.      describe the environmental concept,ecological imbalances and their consequences;

6.      explainimportance of natural resources, their conservation and management with referenceto national context.


Biology

Grade XI

Course Content

Section A (Botany)


Teaching hour 75

Full marks : 37.5


Unit 1: Introduction to Biology                                                                                               5 Teachinghour

        Biochemically important organicand inorganic molecules (general concepts): Carbohydrate, protein, lipid, nucleic acid, minerals and water.

Unit 2:  CellBiology                                                                                                             15 Teachinghour

        The cell: The cell as a unit of life, structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, Structure and functions of cell organelles and inclusions.

        Cell division:Amitosis, mitosis, meiosis.

Unit 3:  Biodiversity                                                                                                          40 Teachinghour

Definition and scope of biodiversity, flora diversity of Nepal, conceptof taxonomy: classification, binomial nomenclature, shortcoming of two kingdomclassification, hierarchic system in classification, phylogeny. Five kingdom classification: Monera, Protista,Mycota, Plantae and Animalia.

 Monera: General account, structure and function of bacterial cells, conceptof autotrophic and heterotrophic life styles, economic importance of bacteria.

Cyanobacteria: Nostoc Structure, reproduction and economic importance.

     Mycota: Conceptof Zygomycetes, Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes.

Structure and reproduction of Zygomycetes (Mucor),Ascomycetes (Yeast). Economic importance of fungi.

     Plantae:

Algae: Introduction to green, red and brown algae, structure and reproduction of Spirogyra.

Bryophyta: Marchantia andFunaria (morphology and life cycle).

Pteridophyta: Dryopteris (morphology and life cycle).

Gymnosperm: Brief morphological structure of Cycas and Pinus structure and its distribution.

Angiosperm:  Morphology: root, stem, leaf, flower,fruit and seed relevantto the following families. Taxonomy and economic importance of the following families; Cruciferae (Brassicaceae), Solanaceae,

Leguminosae Papilionoidae only, Compositae (Asteraceae) and Gramineae (Poaceae).

Lichen: Introduction and economic importance.

Virus: Structureand economic importance.

Unit 4:  Biota and their Environment                                                                              15 Teachinghour

     Ecology: Definition, abiotic, bioticfactors and their interactions.

     Conceptof ecosystem, Pond and grassland ecosystems: structural and functional aspects; food chain, trophic level, ecological pyramids, productivity, conceptof community and succession.

     Bio-geochemical cycle: carboncycle and nitrogencycle.

     Ecological imbalanceand its consequences: Green houseeffects, depletion of ozone layer and acid rain.

     Concept of mountain ecosystem (altitudinal and climatic changes).

     Conservation:

Forest conservation: Brief introduction of forests of Nepal, importanceof afforestation and hazards of deforestation.

Management of land and water.


Evaluation Scheme
Unit wise weightage for Botany Part  1

Types of questions asked in the examination

Unit

Teaching hour

Marks

Very short question (1 mark)

Short questions

(3 marks)

Long questions

(7.5 or 8 marks)

1. Introduction to

Biology

5

3

X

1

X

2. Cell Biology

15

8

2 or 1 opt

2

Or       1 *

3. Biodiversity

39

19.5

3 or 1 opt

3 or 1 opt

1 or 1 opt (7.5 marks)

4. Biota and their environment

16

8

2 or 1 opt

2 or 1 opt

Or       1 *

Total

75

37.5 marks

7 ques x 1mark

5 ques x 3 marks

2 ques x 7.5 marks and 8 marks

Total 7 marks

Total 15 marks

Total 15.5 marks

* One full question of 8 marks will be asked either from the unit cell biologyor Biota and environment

Format for question model of Biology – Grade XI Section A (Botany)

1.

Answer in very short; any seven

Total questions to be asked – 10

7 Q x 1 mark

= 7 marks

2.

Describe in brief; any five

5 Q x 3 marks

=  15 marks

Total questions to be asked – 7

3.

Long answer questions (two questions)

one question is given as option as “or”

1 Q. of 8 marks +

1 Q. of 7.5 mark

s = 15.5 marks


——- Total 37.5 marks
Time schedule for questions
Very short questions – 1 mark – maximum 1 min. 
Short questions – 3 mark – maximum 7 – 8 min. 
Long questions – 8 or 7.5 marks – maximum 23 – 24 min.

Note:

1.      There will be separateanswer sheets for section A (Botany) and sectionB (Zoology).

2.      Total exam time period of theorywill be of 3 hrs. for both the sectionsA and B.

3.      Concerned examiners will evaluate both the papers separately.

4.      The pass marks is 27. Thestudents must pass inBotany and Zoology jointly.


Biology

Grade XI

Course Content

Section B (Zoology)


Teaching hour 75

Full marks  : 37.5


Unit 1: Introduction to Biology                                                                                               5 Teachinghour

        Nature and scope of Biology.

        Branch and relation with other sciences.

        General approach to understand life processes.

Unit 2:  Originand evolution of life                                                             20 Teachinghour

     Life and its origin.

     Theories of origin of life.

     Oparin and Haldane’s Theory.

     Miller and Ureys experiment.

     Meaning of evolution, organic evolution.

     Evidences of evolution, structural, anatomical, Paleontological,Embryological & Biochemical.

     Lamarckism, Darwinism& concept of Neo Darwinism.

     Human evolution.

Unit 3:  Biodiversity                                                                                      35 Teachinghour

Meaning of biodiversity, faunaldiversity of Nepal.

     Protista: Characteristics and classification of phylum Protozoaupto class with examples; Habit andhabitat, structure,reproduction and lifecycle of Paramecium and Plasmodium vivax

(a conceptof P. falciparum).

     Animalia:General characters and classificationof the following phyla (upto class)with examples – Porifera, Coelenterata (Cnidaria), Platyhelminthes, Aschelminthes (Nemathelminthes), Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca,Echinodermata and Chordata.

Earthworm (Pheretima posthuma): Habit and habitat, structure; digestive, excretory, reproductive and nervous systems. Economic importance.

Frog (Rana tigrina):Habit and habitat,structure; digestive, circulatory, respiratory, Reproductive.

Unit 4:  Biota and their Environment                                                       15 Teaching hour

     Environmental pollution: Air, waterand soil. Sources of pollution, their effectsand control measures.

Hazards of pesticides.

     Animal behaviour: Taxes, reflexesand reflex action,dominance and leadership, migratory behaviour of fishand bird.

           Adaptation: Animal: Aquatic, amphibious and terrestrial(arboreal and volant).

     Conservation:

1 Wildlife conservation: Meaning of wildlife, importance of wildlife, meaning of rare, threatened, vulnerable and endangered species;few endangered speciesin Nepal. Conservation practices (National parks, wildlifereserves and hunting reserves),

Ways of conservation and causes of extinction.

        Human responsibility for the protection of earth.


Evaluation Scheme
Unit wise weightage for Zoology Grade  XI

Types of questions asked in the examination

Unit

Teaching hour

Total mark asked in exam

Very short question (1 mark)

Short questions

(3 marks)

Long questions

(7.5 or 8 marks)

1.   Introduction   to

Biology

5

2

2

X

X

2. Evolution of Life

20

10

2 or 1 opt

0 or1 opt

1 (8 marks) *

3. Biodiversity

35

17.5

1 or 1 opt

3 or1 opt

1 or1 opt

(7.5 marks)

4. Biota and their environment

15

8

2 or 1 opt

2

X           *

7 ques x 1 mark

5 ques x 3 marks

2 ques x 7.5 and

8 marks

Total

75

37.5 marks

Total 7 marks

Total 15marks

Total 15.5 marks

* One full question of 8 marks will be asked either from the unit Evolution of life or Biota and environment

Format for question model for Biology – Part 1 Section B (Zoology)

1. Answer in very short; any seven
Total questions to be asked – 10 

1 mark x 7 ques = 7 marks

2. Describe in brief; any five
Total questions to be asked – 7
3 marks x 5 ques = 15 marks

3. Long answer questions (two questions)
8 marks + 7.5 marks = 15.5 marks
one question is given as option as “or”

—————-——-

Total    37.5 marks

Time schedule for questions

Very short question – 1 mark – maximum 1 min. 

Short question – 3 marks – maximum 7 – 8 min. 
Long question – 7or7.5marks – maximum 23 – 24 min.

Note:

1.      There will be separateanswer sheets for section A (Botany) and sectionB (Zoology).

2.      Total exam time period of theorywill be of 3 hrs. for both the sectionsA and B.

3.      Concerned examiners will evaluate both the papers separately.

4.      The pass marks is 27. Thestudents must pass inBotany and Zoology jointly.


Model question Paper (Theory) Biology Grade XI Section A (Botany)
Full marks: 75

Pass marks: 27

Time : 3 hrs.
1.     Answer any seven questions in very short.                                                          [1x7=7]

a.         Differentiate prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells on the basis of nucleus. b.        Write the functions of chloroplast.

c.         What arethe components of a nucleotide?

d.         Why are cynobacteria called a blue green algae?

e.         Why areferns called vascular cryptogams?

f.         Write the difference between disc and ray floret. g.               Name the primary consumers of pond ecosystem. h.              Define green house effect.

i.          Lichen is an example of symbiosis, how?

j.          Define plant succession.

2.     Answer any five questions in brief.                                                                        [3x5=15]

a.         In what ways DNA differ from RNA ?

b.         Give the shortcomings of two kingdoms system of classification.

c.         Illustratevegetative structure of Spirogyra with neat & labelled diagram (no description required)

d.         Write economic importance offungi.

e.         By means of stamen character only, how will you differentiate the various families which are included in your syllabus. f.            Energy flow in an ecosystem is always unidirectional. Explain.

g.         How does the carbon cycle exist in the nature?

3.     Describe the prophase I of meiosis cell division. Distinguish it from prophase of mitosis.            [8]

4.     Give the distinguishing characters ofSolanaeceae with its floral formula and floral diagram. Mention botanical names of three economically important plants of this family.                                                          [7.5]

OR

Define alternationof generation discuss it with reference to life cycle of Marchantia.


Section B (Zoology)
1.  Answer anyseven questions in very short.                                                                                [1x7=7]

a.     Define the terms: Parasitogy, Paleontology. b.        How is zoology related with chemistry?

c.     What is organic evolution?

d.     Define analogous organs.

e.     Differentiate oxidizing atmosphere and reducing atmosphere. f.        Write zoological names of (i) wall lizard (ii) liver fluke.

g.     Mention thefunctions of contractile vacuoles in Paramecium. h.        Define conservation.

i.      Name two examples of migratorybirds. j.        Why is DDTbanned?

2. Answer any five questions in brief.                                                                                              [3x5=15]

a.     “Archeopteryxis a connecting link between reptiles and birds”, justify. b.        Give an account of gamogony life cycle of Plasmodium vivax.

c.     Classify Pila.

d.     How is a cocoon formed in earthworm?

e.     Draw labeleddiagram of internal structure of frog’s heart (No description). f.        Describe the volant adaptational features ofbirds.

g.     Enlist the important measures to protect endangered species.

3.   Draw the neat andlabelled diagram of male reproductive system of Pheretima.           [7.5]

OR

Write describe the alimentary canal of Rana tigrina.

4.     Write an essay on the theory of natural selection.                                                                [8]



Botany Practical Grade XI
1       Use and maintenance of compound microscope.

2.      Study of museum specimenand slides:

i.    Types of bacterialcells;

ii.   Spirogyra filaments;

iii.  Mucor: Cultureto demonstrate mycelium and sporangium; culture of yeast cells.

iv.  Study of vegetative and reproductive structure of Marchantia, Funaria,Dryopteris, Pinus.

3.      Study of different stages of mitotic and meioticcell division throughpermanent slides and chart.

4.      Preparation of temporary slide to study cell structure:

Onion scale leaf, Leaf of Geranium or Zebrina or Tradescantia or any other locally availableleaf.

5.      Description of followingplants in semi-technical terms with their floraldiagrams and formulae and identification and economic importanceof at least one plant from each of the following families:

a. Cruciferae (Brassicaceae)    b. Solanaceae   c. Leguminosae Papilionoidae only d. Compositae(Asteraceae)         e. Gramineae (Poaceae)

6.       Study of freshwater ecosystem using an aquariumor pond showing a food chain.

7.      Study of morphological adaptations of the hydrophytes, mesophytes and xerophytes.

8.      Field study: Collection, identification of plantsand animals from local area; Preservation of collected organisms in suitable preservatives and maintain a record.The students are also advised to observe different types of environmental pollution during their field study (Jointly with zoology Dept).

Zoology Practical – Grade XI
1.      Study of permanent slideand museum specimen:

Paramecium, Plasmodium, Sycon, Hydra, Fasciola (Liver fluke), Taenia (Tape worm), Ascaris (Round worm), Pheretima (Earthworm), Hirudinaria(Leech), Palaemon (Prawn),Cancer (Crab), Periplaneta(Cockroach), Pieris (Butterfly), Bombyx (Moth), Aranea (Spider),Palamnaeus(Scorpion), Scolopendra (Centipede), Julus(Millipede), Helix (Garden Snail), Asterias (Starfish), Labeo (Rohu fish), Rana (Frog), Bufo (Toad), Hemidactylus (Wall-lizard), Chelone (Turtle), Columba (Pigeon), Rhinolophus(Bat) and Funambulus (Squirrel).

2.      Preparation of temporary slide and their study:

i.       Striatedmuscle fibre (thigh) of frog.    ii.         Setae and ovary of earthworm. iii.         Squamous epithelialcell of human cheek.

3.         Study of histological structure through permanent slidesof skin, oesophagus, stomach,intestine, rectum, liver, pancreas, lung, kidney, testisand ovary of frog.

4.      Study of adaptational featuresof a primary aquaticanimal (Labeo), seconadry aquaticanimal (Turtle),arboreal

(Calotes, Tree frog),primary volant (Pigeon or other birds)and secondary volant (Flying fish, Bat)

5.      Dissection of animal provided so as to expose their:

a.       Earthworm: General anatomy, alimentary canal, nervoussystem and reproductiveorgans.

b.      Frog: General anatomy, alimentary canal,arterial and venoussystems, reproductive organs and brain.




Format of model question for practical exam
Section A – Botany ( Grade XI)

Time: 3 hrs.

Full marks: 12.5 marks

Pass marks: 5 marks


1.      Taxonomy Identification of family and plant–                      3.5 marks

2.      Preparation of temporary slide –                                             1.5 marks

3.      Spotting (6 spotting) –                                                            3 marks

4.      Viva-voce –                                                                           2 marks

5.      Class record–                                                                        2.5 marks





Model question for practical exam
Section B – Zoology ( Grade XI)


Time: 3 hrs.

Full marks: 12.5 marks

Pass marks: 5 marks


1.

Dissection of animals

3.5 marks

2.

Preparation of temporary slide

1.5 marks

3.

Spotting (6 spotting)

3 marks

4.

Viva-voce

2 marks

5.

Class record

2.5 marks
——————–
Total 12.5 marks



Note:

1.  There will be separatepractical exam for Botany and Zoology.

2.   Practical exam time will be of 3 hr. for each practical exam.

3.   Students must pass both the practical exams separately.


1.         Introduction

Biology for Grade XII builds on the foundation of Biology and seeks to widen students knowledge and practical understanding of the life process. It inculcates theoretical understanding, practical work out and analytical thinking. This course is designed to make the students betterprepared for further studiesin biological sciences.

2. General  Objectives

The general objectives of this courseare :

(a)        to provide the conceptof biology and encouragethe learners to use the knowledge in day to day life. (b)        to make the learners aware of the present development in the biological science with reference to

genetics, physiology and human biology, and

(c)        to preparethe students to take up advanced studiesin biology at university level and encourage learners to be familiar with elementary knowledge of biotechnology and to work in the filed of health, agriculture and industrial sectors.

3. Specific Objectives

On completion of the course, the students will be able to:

(i)         describe the plant and animal tissuetypes; and anatomical structureof higher plantsas well as their functional processes.

(ii)        explainthe developmental processes of typical plant and animal types; (iii)       explain the structure of human body-organs and systems;

(iv)       discussthe role of hormones controlling variousorgans; (iv)            describe common and socially significant human diseases;

(v)        explainelementary geneticsand its use in some technical fields; and

(vi)       describethe application of biology in health, agriculture and various industrial sectors.




Course Content
Section A (Botany)
Teaching hour: 75

Full marks  : 37.5

Unit 1:  Anatomy and Physiology of Organisms                                                     27 Teachinghour

 Plant anatomy: Types of tissues,meristematic and permanent tissues;

Internal structureof dicot and monocot root, stem and leaf; Secondary growth of dicot stem.

Plant physiology:

(i)         Water  relation: Osmosis, diffusion, ascent of sap and transpiration.

(ii)        Photosynthesis: Site of photosynthesis, mechanism and factors affectingphotosynthesis. (iii)            Respiration :Types of respiration, mechanism and factors affecting respiration.

(iv)       Growth: Plant growth hormones: Auxins,Gibberellin, Cytokinin. (v)            Plant movement: Conceptof growth and turgor movement.

Unit 2: Genetics                                                                                   32 Teachinghour

Elements of heredity and variation; Geneticmaterial (DNA and RNA), Genetic code, Gene pool, Genetic expression and its regulation; Basisof Mendelian genetics, Mendels laws of inheritance, Concept of incomplete dominance and co-dominance, Multiplegene, Linkages, Crossing over, Mutation and its types and polyploidy. Sex-linked inheritance (X-linked gene for eye colur of Drosophila and colour-blindness in man)

Unit 3: Developmental Biology                                                     10 Teaching hour

Reproduction and development of angiosperms Asexualreproduction, Pollination, Development of male and femalegametophyte, Fertilization and development of embryo (dicot and monocot).

Unit 4: Application of Biology                                                             6 Teachinghour

     Introduction to biotechnology, tissueculture, conceptof breeding technique, Disease resistant plants, green manures.

     Genetic engineering and its application

     Fermentationtechnology: alcoholic and antibiotic fermentation.



Unit wise weightage for Botany Grade XII
Types of questions asked in the examination

Title

Teaching hour

Marks

Very short question (1 mark)

Short questions

(3 marks)

Long questions

(7.5 or 8 marks)

1.        Anatomy        and

Physiology of Organisms

27

13.5

3

1 or 1 opt

1 or 1 opt

(7.5 marks)

2. Genetics

32

16

1 or 1 opt

2 or1 opt

1 (8 marks)

3. Developmental Biology

10

5

2 or 1 opt

1

X

4. Application of Biology

8

4

1 or 1 opt

1

X

75

37.5

7 ques x 1 mark

5 ques x 3 marks

2 ques 7.5 marks

& 8 marks

Total 7 marks

Total 15marks

Total 15.5 marks



Format of question model for Biology Grade XII
Section A (Botany)
———-————-

1.

Answer in very short; any seven

Total questions to be asked – 10

1 mark x 7 ques = 7 marks

2.

Describe in brief; any five

3 marks x 5 ques = 15 marks

Total questions to be asked – 7

3.

Long answer questions (two questions)

one question is given as option as “or”

8 marks + 7.5 marks = 15.5 marks

Total      37.5 marks

 

Note:

1.      There will be separateanswer sheets for section A (Botany) and sectionB (Zoology).

2.      Total exam time period of theorywill be of 3 hrs. for both the sectionsA and B.

3.      Concerned examiners will evaluate both the papers separately.

4.      The pass marks is 27. Thestudents must pass inBotany and Zoology jointly.

Time schedule for questions

Very short question – 1 mark – maximum 1 min. 

Short question – 3 marks – maximum 7 – 8 min.
Long question – 7 or 7.5 marks – maximum 23 – 24 min.




Course Content
Section A (Zoology) Grade XII

Teaching hour:75

Full marks  : 37.5


Unit 1:  Animal tissues                                                                 8 Teachinghour
Epithelial, connective, muscular and nervoustissues.
Unit 2: Developmental Biology                                                  6 Teachinghour

(i)      Development of frog: Fertilization, cleavage,morulation, blastulation,gastrulation, formation of germinal layers, coelom and tissueformation.

(ii)     Gametogeneisis in animal.

Unit 3: Human  Biology and Health                                               50 Teaching hour

        Nutrition; digestive organsand digestion of food.

        Respiratory organs and mechanism.

        Circulation: Blood, heart and its action,arterial and venous systems (Majorarteries and veins), Blood groups, Rh-factor, Blood pressure and lymph (definition).

        Excretion: Excretory organs, mechanismof urine formation, osmoregulation and homeostatic mechanism (temperatureregulation, kidneyand liver controlsystem).

        Nervousco-ordination: Types of nervous system, structure and function of brain, Transmission of nerve impulse.

        Endocrinology: Structures, functions and disorders of pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas and adrenal glands.

        Sense organs:Structure and functionof eye and ear.

        Reproduction: Reproductive organs.

        Human population: Growth, problemand control strategies.

        Human Diseases:

(a)  Socially significant: Drug abuse, alcoholism and smoking

(b) Communicable: Typhoid,Tuberculosis, Ascariasis and AIDS. (c)  Non communicable: Cancer.

(d) Concept of kalazar and hepatitis.

Unit 4: Application of Biology                                                    11 Teachinghour

     Antibiotics Vaccines(Type and application)

    Tissue and organs transplantation

    Test-tube baby

    Amniocentesis

    Introductionto poultry farming and fish farming.



Unit wise weightage for ZoologyGrade  XII

Types of questions asked in the examination

Title

Teaching hour

Marks

Very short question

(1 mark)

Short questions

(3 marks)

Long questions

(7.5 or 8 marks)

1. Anatomy and Physiology of Organisms

8

4

1

1

X

2. Developmental Biology

6

3

X or 1 opt

1

X

3. Human Biology and

Health

50

24.5

3 or 2 opt

2 or 1 opt

1 (8 marks) or

1 (7.5 marks) or 1 opt

4. Application of Biology

11

6

3

1

X

75

37.5 marks

7 ques x 1 mark

5 ques x 3 marks

2 ques x 8 marks

& 7.5 marks

Total 7 marks

Total 15marks

Total 15.5 marks

Note: Long question from Developmental Biology can be asked by reducing the marks from the unit of Human Biologyand Health.

Format of question model for Biology Grade XII Section B (Zoology)

1. Answer in very short; any seven

Total questions to be asked – 10
1 mark x 7 ques = 7 marks

2. Describe in brief; any five
Total questions to be asked – 7
3 x 5 ques = 15 marks

3. Long answer questions
8 marks + 7.5 marks = 14.5 marks
One question is given as option as “or”

————————
Total 37.5 marks

Note:

1.      There will be separateanswer sheets for section A (Botany) and sectionB (Zoology).

2.      Total exam time period of theorywill be of 3 hrs. for both the sectionsA and B.

3.      Concerned examiners will evaluate both the papers separately.

4.      The pass marks is 27. Thestudents must pass inBotany and Zoology jointly.

Time schedule for questions

Very short question – 1 mark – maximum 1 min. 

Short question – 3 marks – maximum 7 – 8 min. 
Long question – 7 or 7.5 marks – maximum 23 – 24 min.


Model question Paper (Theory)Biology Grade XII

Full marks: 75
Pass marks:27                                                                                    
Time : 3 hrs.
Section A (Botany)

1.  Answer any seven questions in very short.                                                            [1x7=7]

(a)  Write the function of xylem?

(b)  Name the components of a nucleotide?

(c)  Give one example of polygenic inheritance. (d)  Define genetic code.

(e)  What is polyploidy ?

(f Mention two importance of vegetative propagation. (g)  Give two examples of entomophilus plants.

(h)  Define genetic engineering. (i)   Define tissueculture.

(j)   Whatis the main source of greenmanures?

2.  Answer any five questions in brief.                                           [3x5=15] 
(a)  Give the well-labelled diagram of monocotembryo (Description is not required). 
(b)  What are the differences between dicot stem and monocot stem?

(c)  Explain the types of transpiration iplants.

(d)  Differentiatebetween phenotype and genotype.

(e)  What did you understand byMendels 9:3:3:1 ratio
(f)  Differentiate between self and cross fertilization.

(g)   Show with the diagrams the development ofdicot embryo (no description)
(h)  Mention theapplications of genetic engineering.

3.      What is secondary growth ? Discuss the activity of cambium in secondary growth of dicot stem [7.5]

OR

Describe  the light dependent steps of photosynthesis.

4.      “DNA is the hereditary material”, explain it with an experiment.                                                     [8]


Section B (Zoology)
1.  Answer any seven questions in very short.                                                            [1x7=7]

(a)  In which kind of animal tissue you find the mast cells ?

(b)  Name the two sex linked diseases in human. (c)  Define gametogenesis.

(d)  Name any two enzymes which are responsible for protein digestion. (e)  Define the termdeamination.

(f)   Which partof human brain is the centre of intelligence? (g)  Name the causative agent of typhoid fever.

(h)  Whatdoes lSD cause ?

(i)  What is the role of surrogate mother in test tubebaby? (j)Differentiate heterograft and autograft.

2.  Answer any five questions in brief.                                                                          [3x5=15]

(a)  Describe the structure of aerolar fissure.

(b)  If a red-eyed male Drosophilais mated with a white-eyed female, what will be the phenotype of male and female in F1 progeny?

(c)  How is the notochord formed in the embryo of frog?

(d)  What is vitamin? Mention functions of fat –soluble vitamins. (e)  Draw a labeled sketch of internal structure of human kidney.

(f)   What will be the problems of over human population? Suggest some measures to control over population. (g)  Define amniocentesis. Mention its negative & positive effects?

3.      Explain the structure and function of human brain.                                                                           [8]

Or

Explain the respiratory organs of human being.

4.     What are communicablediseases? Discuss the causative agents, symptoms, effects and control measures of anyone communicable disease you have studied.                                                                                             [7.5]


Zoology Practical Grade  XII

1.      Experiments of biochemistry

a.      Experiment to demonstrate the action of saliva on starch.

b.      Experiment to detect the presence of starch in a givensolution. c.         Experiment to detect the presence of sugar in urine.

d.      Experiment to detect the presence of proteinin a given solution (hens albumen).

e.      Study the effect of temperature, ethyl alcohol,and pH on enzymatic action of saliva. f.         Measurement of human blood-pressure with sphygmomanometer.

2.      Study the permanent slides of different types of animal tissues:

Squamous, columnar, cuboidal, areolar, adipose, hyaline and bone.

3.      Study the permanent slidesof following histological organs of mammal:

Skin, stomach, intestine, liver,pancreas, kidney, lung, testisand ovary.

4.      Study of embryologicalpermanent slides of frog: Cleavage,blastula and gastrula.

5.      Study the bones of rabbit(articulate and disarticulate) or models of human bones.

6.      Dissection of a mammal so as to expose its:

i.  General   anatomy;                 ii. Alimentary canal;    iii. Arterial and venous systems;

iv. Brain;                                     v. Reproductive organs.



Botany Practical Grade  XII

1.      Experiments on plant physiology

a.      Experiment to demonstrate the process of osmosis.

B.      Experiment to demonstrate the process of ascent of sap.

c.      Experiment to demonstrate the unequal transpiration from two surfaces of dorsiventral leaf
d.         Experiment to demonstratethe rate of transpiration by Ganongs potometer .

e.      Experiment to demonstrate that the chlorophyll is essential for photosynthesis.

f.       Experiment to demonstratethat the carbondioxide is essential for photosynthesis.

g.      Experiment to demonstrate the process of  evolution of Oxygen during photosynthesis. 
h.         Experiment to demonstrate the aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
i.       Study on effect of growth hormones on germination and shoot elongation. 
j.         Demonstration of plant tissueculture.
k.      Demonstration of yeast culture. 
l.         Preparation of DNA model.
2.      Demonstration of Mendalian geneticsusing maize cob:

(i)      To demonstratesegregation of characters in a monohybridcross.

(ii)     To demonstrate independent assortment of characters in a dihyrid cross.

3.      Study the permanent slidesof different types of simple, permanent and complex plant tissues.

4.      Demonstration of vegetative propagation.

5.      Study the permanent slidesof: (i) T.S of anther,(ii) L.S of ovule of dicot plant,(iii) Structure of embryo.

5.      Preparation of temporaryslide of following plant materials:

(i)     T.S of dicot root, stem and leaf,    (ii)        T.S. of monocotroot, stem and leaf.


Format of model question for practical exam Grade XII

Section B ( Botany)

Time: 3 hrs.

Full marks: 12.5 marks

Pass marks: 5 marks


1.         Preparation of temporary slide of plantanatomy –      ……     3.5 marks

2.         Study on thephysiological experiment –                     …..      1.5 marks

3.         Spotting (6 spotting) –                                              …..      3 marks

4.         Viva-voce –                                                             …..      2 marks

5.         Class record–                                                          ……    2.5 marks


____________________
Total Marks 12.5 marks


Model question for practical exam
Section B (Zoology)
Time: 3 hrs.

Full marks: 12.5 marks

Pass marks: 5 marks

1.

Dissection of animals

………

3.5 marks

2.

Biochemical experiment

………

1.5 marks

3.

Spotting (6 spotting)

………

3 marks

4.

Viva-voce

………..

2 marks

5.

Class record

………..

2.5 marks

————————-

Total 12.5 marks

Note:

1.  There will be separatepractical exam for Botany and Zoology.

2.   Exam time will be of 3 hrs. for each practical exam.

3.   Students must pass both the practical exam separately.