मौद्रिक नीति 

मौद्रिक नीति भनेको कुनै पनि मुलुकको सरकार वा मौद्रिक अधिकारीले मुलुकको राष्ट्रिय आवश्यकता अनुसार मुद्राप्रदाय, विनिमयदर, कर्जा प्रवाह, ब्याजदर र मूल्य सम्वन्धमा अपनाउने समष्टिगत नीति हो । अर्को शब्दमा देशको मुद्रा एवं साखको पूर्ति लाई एक निश्चित स्तरमा कायम राख्ने केन्द्रीय वैंकको नीति, मौद्रिक नीति (Monetary Policy) समष्टिगत आर्थिक नीति (Macro-economic Policy) का तीन प्रमुख औजारमध्ये एउटा औजार, यो […]

वित्त नीति 

वित्तीय नीति भनेको पूर्व निर्धारित उद्देश्यहरु हासिल गर्न प्रयोग गरिने राजश्व, सार्वजनिक व्यय तथा सार्वजनिक ऋणसंग सम्बन्धित सरकारी नीति हो । विकासशील देशहरुमा वान्छनीय स्तरको रोजगारी, उच्च आर्थिक वृद्धिदर, आर्थिक स्थिरता, आय र धन सम्पत्तीको समानता जस्ता उद्देश्य प्राप्ति र विकशित देशहरुमा आर्थिक स्थिरताको मुख्य उद्देश्य राखी योजनाबद्ध ढंगले तर्जुमा र कार्यान्वयन गरिने वित्तीय क्रियाकलापहरु […]

HIGH power money 

The total amount of currency held by the public, as well as cash in the vaults of financial institutions, and bank deposits at the Federal Reserve. The Federal Reserve Bank maintains close Control over the amount of high powered money that can influence its monetary policy decisions. also called the monetary base. In simple terms […]

Objectives or Goals of Monetary Policy 

The following are the principal objectives of monetary policy: Full Employment: Full employment has been ranked among the foremost objectives of monetary policy. It is an important goal not only because unemployment leads to wastage of potential output, but also because of the loss of social standing and self-respect. Price Stability: One of the policy […]

Monetary policy 

Definition: Monetary policy is how central banks manage the money supply to guide healthy economic growth. The money supply is credit, cash, checks, and money market mutual funds. The most important of these is credit, which includes loans, bonds, mortgages, and other agreements to repay. Monetary policy is the macroeconomic policy laid down by the […]

Fiscal Policy 

Fiscal policy plays an increasingly important role in many developing countries. Decisions on fiscal policy, especially if properly synchronized with monetary policy, can help smoothen business cycles, ensure adequate public investment and redistribute incomes. The four main components of fiscal policy are: expenditure, budget reform revenue (particularly tax revenue) mobilization, deficit containment/ financing and determining […]

Factor affecting money supply 

The supply of money in a modern economy and financial system is determined by three key factors: “Open market operations” – this is effectively the same as Quantitative Easing. The Central Bank buys government bonds, effectively creating money The “reserve requirement” imposed on banks – this is the % of deposits made by customers at […]

Geology and Civil Engineering Notes | Engineering Geology 

Geology and different branches of science Geology is the branch of science that deals with the study of earth, its history, structures and the process that act upon it. Engineering geology includes: Evaluation of natural hazards. Evaluation of landscape for site selection. Evaluation of Earth’s resources for potential use. Branches of Geology Physical Geology: Deals […]

Right to Equality 

Under Right to Equality, we have the following titles: 4.1 Right to Equality 4.2 Article 13-‘Affirmative Action’ and Doctrine of Reasonable Classification’ 4.3 Rule against ‘Arbitrariness’ 4.4 Right to “Proportional Inclusion” and Constitutionality of Reservation Policy 4.5 Special Provisions for Women 4.6 Rights of Indigenous People 4.1 Right to Equality All citizens shall be equal […]

Right to Equality – Doctrine of Reasonable Classification 

Article 13 guarantees equal protection of law but it does not mean that all laws must be general in character. It also doesn’t mean that the same laws should apply to all persons. The varying needs of different classes of persons often require separate treatment. From the very nature of society, there should be different […]