Geology and Civil Engineering Notes | Engineering Geology 

Geology and different branches of science Geology is the branch of science that deals with the study of earth, its history, structures and the process that act upon it. Engineering geology includes: Evaluation of natural hazards. Evaluation of landscape for site selection. Evaluation of Earth’s resources for potential use. Branches of Geology Physical Geology: Deals […]

Right to Equality 

Under Right to Equality, we have the following titles: 4.1 Right to Equality 4.2 Article 13-‘Affirmative Action’ and Doctrine of Reasonable Classification’ 4.3 Rule against ‘Arbitrariness’ 4.4 Right to “Proportional Inclusion” and Constitutionality of Reservation Policy 4.5 Special Provisions for Women 4.6 Rights of Indigenous People 4.1 Right to Equality All citizens shall be equal […]

Right to Equality – Doctrine of Reasonable Classification 

Article 13 guarantees equal protection of law but it does not mean that all laws must be general in character. It also doesn’t mean that the same laws should apply to all persons. The varying needs of different classes of persons often require separate treatment. From the very nature of society, there should be different […]

Right to Equality – Constitutionality of Reservation Policy 

Some say that reservation is a part of affirmative action whereas others say that it is not.. The proviso to Article 13(3) of the Interim Constitution gives state “special powers” for affirmative action. However, there is no mention of the word ‘reservation’ in this proviso or the rest of Article 13 guaranteeing the right to […]

Right to Equality – Affirmative Action 

It is important to link the proviso of Article 13(3) [the power of the state to make special provisions for the protection, empowerment or advancement of some specified groups of people] with the American principle of Affirmative Action. Affirmative action is sometime also called ‘reverse discrimination” or “positive discrimination.” Note Article 35(14) of the Interim […]

Assimilation of the poem Where the Mind Is Without Fear | Four-Level Analysis | BBA Notes 

The idea Rabindranath Tagore expressed with the poem impressed me a lot. The poem inspires people to live a life fearlessly while ensuring the society is peaceful, unified and justice is served. Fearing something stops us to think properly and act as an obstacle to our own progress. If all the people in the nation […]

Critical Thinking of the poem Where the Mind Is Without Fear | Four-Level Analysis | BBA Notes 

The poem stands on patriotic front and shows a mirror of the society, nation and the world where people think, work and live. The poet imagines an ideal place without injustice, corruption, violence, inequality, and discrimination. Rather he wants to see the place with complete freedom, justice, spiritualism, and humanity. The poet seems to distance […]

Interpretation of the poem Where the Mind Is Without Fear | Four-Level Analysis | BBA Notes 

This patriotic poem tells us about the importance of freedom in human life. The poem also doesn’t fail to show us the value of reason, knowledge, freedom, universality and honesty. The poet wants to create a perfect place where everyone can live in harmony and there are no artificial borders to divide. He wants the […]

Summary of the poem Where the Mind Is Without Fear | Four-Level Analysis | BBA Notes 

‘Where the Mind Is Without Fear’ is a beautiful poem written by Rabindranath Tagore in the form of prayer. The poem was written during the time when India was struggling against British rulers for their freedom. He expresses his love for his nation, praying for its well-being with the almighty (God) in the poem. He […]

Assimilation of the poem Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening | Four-Level Analysis | BBA Notes 

After reading the poem, I learnt that the duties can’t be fulfilled in the course of time as it doesn’t wait for anyone. All the duties and responsibilities need to be fulfilled and carried out when we can and on time. The poem also talks about the beauty of the nature in even the darkest […]