Chapter 4 » Meaning and Methods of Organization | Business Studies – XII 

Departmentation It is defined as a process of dividing small units of organizational activities. Departmentation may be called division sections branch etc. it helps to provide the specialization, develops the skill and knowledge of manpower and the efficiency of manpower of an enterprise will be increased. It specifies the area of the activities that facilitate […]

Chapter 12 » Process of Controlling | Business Studies – XII 

                 Process of controlling 1. Establishing or setting standards– the first step of controlling is to set standard against which results can be measured. For setting standard, targeted results must be identified and it should be quantitative as far as possible. Quantitative term can make controlling effective. Standards […]

Chapter 12 » Importance of Controlling | Business Studies – XII 

Importance of controlling 1. Execution of plans– control helps in ensuring the performance of plans through regular examination and evaluation of performance of work that results the performance of activities for accomplishment of goals. 2. Helps in supervision– control helps in reducing deviation between standard performance and actual performance through effective control system established by […]

Chapter 12 » Essentials of effective Control | Business Studies – XII 

Essentials of effective control 1. Suitability– the control system should be appropriate to the nature and needs of various activities to serve the specific area or department of the organization 2. Timely and forward looking– control system in the management of the organization should be used to evaluate the deviations timely and take corrective measures […]

Chapter 12 » Meaning of Controlling | Business Studies – XII 

Meaning of controlling Controlling is the basic managerial function. It is the process of ensuring the actual activities confined to planned activity. It is an essential function for all levels of management. It ensures the right things are done in the right manner at right time. Each and every organization set the goals. All activities […]

Chapter 11 » Techniques of coordination | Business Studies – XII 

    Means/ techniques of coordination 1. Well defined goals: – the first means or technique of coordination is well defined goals. The goals of the organization should be clear and well defined. Each individual in the organization should understand the overall goals. When the goals are not well defined the coordination may not effective. […]

Chapter 11 » Principles of coordination | Business Studies – XII 

Elements/principles/requisites of good coordination 1. Simplified organization: – authority, responsibility, duty and other job description should clearly be described by the organization. Coordination may be simple and easy when all duties and power are clearly simplified, 2. Harmonized programs and policies: – an organization must set the programs and policies. These programs and policies must […]

Chapter 11 » Importance of coordination | Business Studies – XII 

                 Importance of coordination 1. Unity of action: – an enterprise has diverse resources; technique, activities etc and they all must be coordinates to bring unity through unity in action. 2. Increase in efficiency and economy: – coordination brings efficiency because it is an effort of all organizational […]

Chapter 11 » Meaning of coordination | Business Studies – XII 

Meaning of coordination It is defined as a harmonization of all resources and activities that facilitates in work. It is the essence of management for the achievement for the achievement of harmony of individual effort towards the accomplishment of group goals. It is a process by which the manager achieves harmonious group effort and unity […]

Chapter 10 » Barriers to effective Communication | Business Studies – XII 

Barriers to effective communication A. Physical barriers Internal structure of the organization and layout of office machines and equipments creates physical barriers in communication a.      Distance: – communication is found obstructed in long distance. Like communication between America and Nepal. b.      Noise: – it is from external sources and affects the communication process. Noise negatively […]