Chapter 7 » Maslow’s need hierarchy theory | Business Studies – XII 

Maslow’s need hierarchy theory All human behavior is directed towards fulfilling their needs. Abhram Maslow’s needs hierarchy theory is based upon the needs of human beings. According to this theory, each and every people have certain needs. In response to that need, s/he is motivated to do work. Human needs have hierarchy. That’s why to […]

Chapter 7 » Process of motivation | Business Studies – XII 

Process of motivation   1. Unsatisfied needs and motives:  it is the first process of motivation. This stage involves unsatisfied needs and motives. Such unsatisfied needs can be activated by internal stimulus such as hunger and thirst. They can also be activated by external stimulus such as advertisement and window display 2. Tension:  this stage […]

Chapter 7 » Types of motivation | Business Studies – XII 

Types of motivation 1. Positive motivation:  it is also known as cost approach. It offers some reward for better performance. Such reward can be of two types i.e. money reward like giving salaries and wages, payment for higher performance like bonus and pension, payment for holidays and so on. Secondly there maybe job related reward. […]

Chapter 7 » Techniques of motivation | Business Studies – XII 

Techniques of motivation 1. Financial incentives:  First techniques of motivation are financial incentives as money is indicator of success. Therefore it fulfills psychological safety and status need as people satisfy their needs by money. Wages, salary motivates employees to perform better. 2. Job enlargement: Under this technique, task assigned to do job are increased by […]

Chapter 7 » Meaning and Importances of Motivation | Business Studies – XII 

Meaning of motivation Motivation is an inspiration that helps to use the employees’ knowledge and skill for the growth and development of the organization. It is an act of persuading the people who work in the organization. It is defines as the psychological process that hell to increase the will to do work. It is […]

Chapter 6 » Components of direction | Business Studies – XII 

Aspects of direction Direction is an integration of motivation, leadership, communication and coordination.  It is an important function of management which is related to issue orders to staff. 1. Motivation: it is the process of inspiring and encouraging the people to do work. It is a skill of using the capability of manpower for the organization. […]

Chapter 6 » Importance of direction | Business Studies – XII 

Importance of direction 1. Integrative force:  direction integrates the activities of employees. It is mainly concentrated about what, when, where and who to do the work. Without integration none of the activities can be fulfilled. Effective operation can be achieved only when the efforts of all employees are integrated 2. Initiate the action:  in direction, […]

Chapter 6 » Principles of direction | Business Studies – XII 

Principles of direction 1.  Principle of harmony of objectives:  every organization set the objectives and these objectives are to be fulfilled with the help of people working in the organization. Therefore managers must try to bring harmony between individual and organizational goals 2. Unity of command:  The individual who works in the organization get direction […]

Chapter 6 » Concept of direction | Business Studies – XII 

Concept of direction Direction is an important function of management which is related to inspiring, instructing and guiding human factors in the organization to achieve organizational activities and objectives. A superior direct and control the subordinates and instruct the manpower which yields better performance. Direction is the guideline inspiration which is provided from higher position […]

Chapter 5 » Types of Managerial Decisions | Business Studies – XII 

Types of decision making 1. Programmed and non programmed decisions: Programmed decisions are those which are normally repetitive in nature and are taken as a routine job and responsibilities. These types of decisions are made by middle level management in accordance with some policies, rules and procedures. They have short term impact. For example: – granting […]