Zoology XI | HSEB Notes



BIOLOGY – ZOOLOGY
INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY
·       Nature and Scope of Biology
·       Branch and relation with other sciences.
·       General approach to understand life processes.
EVOLUTION OF LIFE
·         Life and it’s origin
·         Theories of Origin of Life
·         Oparin and Haldane’s Theory
·         Miller and Urey’s experiment
·         Meaning of evolution, organic evolution
·         Evidences of evolution, organic evolution
·         Evidences of evolution , structural, anatomical, Paleontological, Embryological & Biochemical
·         Lamarckism, Darwinism & concept of Neo Darwinism
·         Human Evolution
BIODIVERSITY
·         Protista: Characterostics and classification of phylum Protozoa upto class with examples; Habit and Habitat, structure, reproduction and lifecycle of Paramecium and Plasmodium Vivax (a concept of P. falciparum)
·         Animalia: General Characters and classification of the following phyla (upto class) with examples- Porifera, Coelenterata (Cnidaria), Platyhelminthes, Aschelminthes (Nemathelminthes), Annelida, Arthopoda, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Chordata.
·         Earthworm (Pheretima Posthuma):  Habit and habitat, structure: digestive, excretory, reproductive and nervous systems. Economic importance.
·         Frog (Rana tigrina): Habit and habitat, structure: digestive,  circulatory, respiratory, Reproductive
BIOTA AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT
·         Enviroment pollution: Air, water and Soil. Pollution and their effects and the control methods
·         Animal Behaviour: Texes, reflexes and reflex action, dominance and leadership, migratory behaviour of fish and bird.
·         Adoptation: Animal: Aquatic, amphibious and terrestrial (arboreal and volant)

·         CONSERVATION:

1.       Wildlife conservation: Meaning of wildlife, importance of wildlife, meaning of rare, treatened, vulnerable and endangered species; few endangered species in Nepal. Conservation practices (National Parks, wildlife reserves and hunting reserves), Ways of Conservation and causes of extinction.

Human responsibility for the protection of earth

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