Manufacture of Ammonia by Haber’s process


Theory:
NH3 is manufactured by Haber’s process. In this process, pure nitrogen and hydrogen gases react in the ratio of 1:3 by volume in 400°C-500°C temperature, 200-900 atm pressure in presence of iron as catalyst & molybdenum as promoter.

                       Fe/Mo (400-500°C)     
N2+3H2 
——————–> 2NH3+ heat

                          (200-900atm)
manufacture of ammonia by Haber's process
Conditions for maximum yield:

1.     Low Temperature:

Since the reaction isexothermic, it favors low working temperature for maximum yield of product i.e. around 500°C.

2.     High Pressure:

Four volume reactant gives two volume of product i.e. volume is reduced to half. Hence there is maximum production of ammonia at 200-900 atm pressure (high).

3.     Use of Catalyst:
Use of catalyst makes the reaction faster in forward direction. Hence the catalyst like iron (Fe) &promoter like molybdenum (Mo) is used for maximum yield of the product.

4.     Purity of Reactant:

The purity of the reactants Hydrogen (H2) & Nitrogen (N2) helps in the more yielding of the product.

5.     Concentration of Reactants:

More the concentration of reactant, more the production. So, high concentration of hydrogen and nitrogen is used.



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