Introduction to Science

Introduction to Science

  • The word ‘science’ has been derived from the Latin word Scientia-meaning knowledge.
  • Science can be defined as knowledge which is verified and confirmed by various facts.
  • Science has two main branches: Physical and Biological sciences.
  • The word “Biology” has been derived from two GREEK words “Bios”-meaning living and “Logos”- meaning discourse.
  • Biology has been further divided into 2 Sub branches:
    • Zoology
    • Botany/Phytology
  • The word “zoology” has been derived from two Greek words:
  • The word “Botany” has been derived from Geek words:
    Botane-Meaning herbs


First Scientific study of living organisms was done by a Greek naturalist, Aristotle (384-322BC). So he is known as the “father of Biology”.

Theophrastus (370-287 B.C.) was the first to undertake scientific study on plant, so he is called as “Father of Botany”.

Aristotle (384-322B.C.) was first to undertake study on animals, so he is known as “father of zoology”.

Technical terms used in general characters and classification:

Habitat is the place where the organisms live/survive. Based on the medium, there are two major habitats, they are:

Terminologies related to habit and habitat:

a)      Colonial: Organisms living in group or colony E.g. honey bees, ants etc.

b)      Solitary: Organisms living singly. E.g. dogs, cats, tigers

c)      Stalked: Organisms having stalk E.g. vorticella

d)      Sessile: Organisms not having stalk E.g. man, dog

e)      Benthic: Organisms living on the bottom of seas or water body E.g. corals

f)       Pelagic: Organisms living on the surface of water. E.g. larvae of mosquito, ducks, small fishes

g)      Lotic: Organisms living on running water. E.g. Migratory fishes (Salmon)

h)      Lentic: Organisms living on stagnant (static) water. E.g. frog

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