Generation of computer



The computers of electronic age are further divided into 5 generation on the basis of technology used by the computer. The different generations are:
                   i) First Generation of computers
                  ii) Second generation of computers
                 iii) Third generation of computers
                iv) Fourth generation of computers
                v) Fifth generation of computers

i) First Generation of Computers

1) Technology used: Vacuum tube
2) Operating speed: Millisecond range
3) Programming language used: Machine language
4) Memory used
: Primary memory: Magnetic core memory
: Secondary memory: Magnetic drum, Magnetic tape.
5) I/O device:
Punched card as input device, printing device as output device.
6) Use: Simple mathematical calculation.
7) Computers were extremely large in size, and they required special cooling system. e.g.: ENIVAC, EDVAC, UNIVAC, etc.

ii) Second Generation of Computers:

     1) Technology used: Transistor
     2) Operation speed: Micro second range (10-6 sec)
     3) Programming language used: Assembly language
     4) Memory used
           : Primary memory: Magnetic core memory.
           : Secondary memory: Magnetic drum, Magnetic tape.
     5) I/O: Punched card as input device, Printer as output device
     6) Use: Computers were used for complex scientific calculations.
     7) The size, cost, power requirement, heat generation decreased compared to previous generation.
     8) Processing speed, storage capacity, use of the computer increased compared to previous generation.
E.g.: IBM 1620, IBM 7094, LEO MARK III, etc.

Advantages of transistor over vacuum tube:

   i) One transistor could replace one thousand vacuum tubes.
  ii) Size of a transistor is 1/200 th times of a vacuum tube.
 iii) The power requirement of a transistor is 1/20 th times of a vacuum tube.
 iv) Transistors are more reliable than vacuum tube.

iii) Third Generation of Computers

i) Technology used: IC (Integrated Circuit)
ii) Operating speed: Nanosecond range (10 -9 sec)
iii) Programming language used: HLL (High Level Language)
                            Like FORTAN, COBOL, PASCAL, C, C++, etc.
iv) Memory used:
           Primary memory: Semiconductor memory (silicon)
          Secondary memory: Magnetic tape, Magnetic disk like floppy disk, hard disk, etc)
v) I/O device: Keyboard as input device, monitor as output device.
vi) Use: Computers were used for managing population census, bank, insurance company, etc.
vii) Concept of database was developed and used.
viii) Size, cost, power requirement, heat generation decreased compared to previous generations.
ix) Processing speed, storage capacity, use of the computer increased compared to previous generations.
E.g.: IBM 360 series, ICL 900 series, Honeywell 200 series, etc.

 

IC and its types:

IC is a small silicon chip which contains large number of electronic components like transistor, resistor, capacitor, etc.
The process of creation of IC is called fabrication.
Types of IC on the basis of number of electronic components.
    i) SSI (Small Scale Integration)
           (1-20 components)
   ii) MSI (Medium Scale Integration)
           (21-100 components)
  iii) LSI (Large Scale Integration)
          (101-1000 components)
 iv) VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration)
          (1001-10000 components)
 v) ULSI ( Ultra Large Scale Integration)
          (More than 10000 components)

iv) Fourth Generation of Computers:

         1) Technology used:- VLSI (or Microprocessor)
         2) Operating speed:- Pico second range
         3) Programming language used: 4GL (Problem Oriented Language)
         4) Memory used:
                  Primary: Semi-conductor memory
                  Secondary: Magnetic tape, Magnetic Disk, Optical memory (CD/DVD/ Blu ray), Flash
                                    memory(pen drive, memory card)
        5) I/O device:
               Advanced I/O devices like mouse, touch screen, scanner, LCD, LED, color printer, etc are developed.
        6) Use:
               Computers are used for different task in different areas like education, business, hospital, transportation, military, etc.
7) Microcomputers like desktop PC, laptop, notebook, etc, are developed.
8) The popular communication media like internet, email, mobile communication, etc were developed.
9) Advanced, user friendly, web based software, etc are developed.
10) Size, cost, power requirement, heat generation decreased compared to previous generation.
11) Operating speed, storage capacity, use of the computer increased compared to previous generation.
E.g.: IBM desktop PC, HP laptop, Acer notebook, Mac book, etc.

vi) Fifth Generation of Computers:

1) Technology to be used:- Bio-chip
2) Operating speed:- Femto second range
(10 -15 second) / TIPS
3) Programming language to be used:- Natural language
4) The computers will have AI.
5) The computers will be used in complex calculation where intelligence of the computer is required.
6) The computers will have parallel processing in full fledge.
7) The computers will be based on KIPS (Knowledge based Information Processing System)