Ethane

CHEMISTRY OF ETHANE
INTRODUCTION
 Molecular formula = C2H6
 Molecular mass = 30
 Empirical formula = CH3
 Empirical formula mass = 15
 State: Gas at room temperature.
 Occurrence: Ethane occurs along with methane in natural gas and gases from oil-wells. It is also      present in coal gas in very small quantity.
ORBITAL STRUCTURE OF ETHANE
   Composition of ethane molecule:
   Ethane molecule consists of two carbon atoms and six H-atoms (C2H6 ).
   Nature of Hybridization:
   In ethane each C-atom is Sp3-hybridized containing four Sp3-hybrid orbitals. One s-orbital and three  
    
p-orbitals (px, py, pz) undergo Sp3-hybridization to produce four Sp3-hybrid orbitals for each carbon    atom.
   Sigma bond formation:
   Out of four Sp3-hybrid orbitals one Sp3-hybrid orbital of one C-atom overlaps with one s-orbital of
    H-atom to produce three sigma bond and the last overlaps with one Sp3-orbital of other C-atom to    produce a sigma bond between two C-atoms.
   Geometry of ethane:
   Ethane molecule is arranged in tetrahedral geometry in which central carbon atoms are surrounded by    H-atoms in three dimensions.
 
   Bond angles:
   HCH bond angle is 109.5o.
   Bond length:
   C-H bond length is 1.09Ao and C-C bond length is 1.54Ao.
METHODS OF PREPARATION
 FROM WURTZ REACTION
               2CH3I + 2Na  C2H6 +2NaI
 FROM GRIGNARD’S REAGENT
   Ethane may be obtained by the hydrolysis of ethyl magnesium iodide.
               C2H5-Mg-I + HOH  C2H6 + Mg-OH-I
 FROM ETHYL IODIDE
               C2H5-I + 2[H]  C2H6 + HI
 BY THE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF ETHYL IODIDE
               C2H5-I + H C2H6 + HI
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
 COMBUSTION REACTION
   Ethane burns in air or oxygen with a non-luminous flame to produce carbon dioxide and water. It is an    exothermic
               2C2H6 + 7O 4CO2 + 6H2O + HEAT
 HALOGENATION
   Replacement of halogen with H-atom of an organic compound is called Halogenation. It is a    substitution reaction.
   CHLORINATION:
            C2H6 + Cl C2H5Cl  C2H4Cl2+ Cl-CH2-CH2-Cl
 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
   It is colorless gas.
   Its boiling point is -89oC.
   It is sparingly soluble in water.
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