Economics XI | HSEB Notes



NATURE OF ECONOMICS

a.     Origin of Economics

b.     Development of Economics

c.      Definition of Economics

i.       Wealth definition – Adam smith

ii.     Welfare definition- Alfred Marshall

iii.   Wealth and welfare definition compared

iv.   Scarcity definition-Lionel Robbins

v.      Comparison between welfare and scarcity definition of economics

vi.    Superiority of Robbins’definition over Marshall definition

                   d. Scope of economics

                               – Subject matter of economics

                               – Is economics a science or an art?

                   e. Meaning of microeconomics and macro economics

                               – Microeconomics

                               – Macroeconomics

                  f. Importance of economics analysis in policy formulation

                     – Differentiate between microeconomicsand macroeconomics

 

 

a.     Concept

           -Scarcity

                               – Choice

b.     Allocation of resources

c.      Concept of production possibility curve

            – Introduction

            – Shifting of the curve

 

a.   Meaning of national income

b.   Different concept of national income

              – GDP

              – GNP

              – NNP

              – NATIONAL INCOME (NI)

              – PERSONAL INCOME

              – DISPOSABLE INCOME

– PCI

 c.  Computation or measurement of national income

              – Expenditure method

              – Income method

              – Product approach (output method)

d. Difficulties in the measurement of national income

 

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: MEANING AND INDICATORS

 

a.     Concept of economic growth and economic development

              – Economic growth

              – Economic development

b. Indicators of economic development

c. Characteristics of developing countries

    

NEPALESE ECONOMICS

 

1.     NATURAL RESOURCES

a.     Water resources

         – Introduction

         – Importance

         – Current situation of water resources

         – Problem of water resource development

b. Forest resources

        – Benefits of forest resources

        – Causes of rapid deforestation in nepal

        – Consequences of deforestation in Nepal

c. Mineral resources

        – introduction

        – Importance of mineral resources

        – Problems in mineral resource utilization

d. Environment and natural resource management

        – Meaning

        – Causes of environmental pollution

        – Consequences of environmental pollution

        – Remedial measures to control environmental pollution

    

 

2.     HUMAN RESOURCES

a.     Meaning

b.     Role of human resources

e.     Causes of rapid population growth in Nepal

f.      Consequences of rapid population growth

g.     Remedies to control population growth

 

3.     AGRICULTURE

a.     Background

e.      Remedial measures

f.       Agriculture finance

g.     Agricultural marketing in Nepal

h.     Nature of agricultural market in Nepal

i.       Problems of agricultural marketing

j.       Remedies against problems of agricultural marketing

 

4.     POVERTY

a.     Concept of poverty

b.     Types of poverty

c.     Poverty line

e.    Causes of poverty

f.      Measures of poverty reduction

 

5.     INDUSTRY

a.     Introduction

b.     Types of industries: small and cottage industries, medium and large scale industries

c.    Role of Cottage and Small Scale Industries

d.    Problems of Cottage and Small scale Industry

e.    Role of Medium and Large Scale Industries

f.    Problems of Medium and Large scale Industries

g.      Tourism industry

            – Introduction

            – Importance of Tourism Industry

            – Prospects of tourism industry

            – Problems of tourism industry

            – Remedial measures of problems of tourism industry

6.     TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATION

a.     Introduction

b.     Means of transportation and communication

                              – Means of transportation

                              – Means of communication services

                              – Role of transportation and communication in economic development

    7. FOREIGN TRADE

          a. Introduction

          b. Nepalese foreign trade: growth and trend, composition, direction

          c. Problems of foreign trade

 

8.     PUBLIC FINANCE

a.     Concept

b.     Importance of public finance

c.     Public revenue : meaning and sources

d.     Public expenditure :meaning, importance and classification

9.     Development planning

a.     Concept

b.     THE 10TH plan (2059-2064): objectives, priorities, policies

c.     THE THREE YEAR INTERIM PLAN(2007/008-2009/10)

d.     Process of plan formulation

 

 

      QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS IN ECONOMICS

a.     Concept and need

b.     Use of statistics in economics

c.      Use of mathematics in economics

 

 

STATISTICS

 

1. INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS

                a. Origin and development of statistics

b. Definition of statistics

           – Plural definition

           – Singular definition

c. Importance and scope of statistics

d. Functions of statistics

e. Limitations or weakness of statistics

 

2. COLLECTION OF DATA

a.     Concept

b.     Pre-requisites of data collection

c.      Types of data

d.     Methods of collecting primary data

                           – Direct personal interview

                           – Indirect oral interview

                           – Information through local correspondent

                           – Mailed questionnaire method

                           – Schedules sent through enumerators

               e. Sources of secondary data

               f. Precaution sin use of secondary data

               g. Techniques of data collection: census and sampling

               h. Method of sampling :probability and non probability

 

3. ORGANISATION OF DATA

                  a. Concept

                  b. Classification : features, objectives, bases and types

                 c. Variables

                 d. Frequency of distribution

                 e. Tabulation of data : advantages. Parts and type of table

 

4. DIAGRAMMATIC AND GRAPHIC PRESENTATION OF DATA

                a. Concept

                b. Diagrammatic presentation of data

                c. General rules for construction

                d. Bar diagrams : simple, subdivided, multiple and percentage bar diagram

                e. Angular or pie diagrams

                f. Time series, histogram, frequency distribution, ogives, curves

 

5. MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY

                 a. Averages: arithmetic mean, weighted average, geometric mean, harmonic mean

                 b. Median: individual data, discrete series, continuous series

                 c. Partitions: quartiles, deciles, percentiles

                 d. Mode: grouping, table

                 e. Relationship between averages, median, partitions and mode   

 

6. MEASURES OF DISPERSION

                a. Range

                b. Quartile deviation and semi inter quartile

                c. Average deviation

                d. Standard deviation

                                

MATHEMATICS

1. LAWS OF INDICES

2. EQUATIONS: SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS, QUADRATIC

3. LOGARITHMS AND ANTILOGARITHMS

4. EQUATIONS OF STRAIGHT LINE


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