Factors of production 

The factors used in the production are called factors of production. All of them contribute in the production. For their contribution they are paid remuneration. The factors of production are land, labor, capital and organization. The payments made to the factors of productions are called rent, wage, interest and profits respectively. These payments are called […]

First law of thermodynamics 

Ø  Total energy in the universe remains constant. Ø  Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed but can be transferred from one form to another. When Q amount of heat is supplied to the system, some part of it is used up to increase in its internal energy and remaining some part of it […]

Thermodynamic equilibrium 

The system is said to be in thermodynamic equilibrium if it attains thermal, mechanical, and chemical equilibrium at a time with surrounding. Thermal equilibrium means temperature remaining constant. Mechanical equilibrium means pressure remaining constant. Chemical equilibrium means composition/mass remaining constant.

Reversible and Irreversible processes 

Reversible process Irreversible process The process goes through infinite change so, it takes infinite time to complete. The process goes through finite change so, it takes finite time to complete. The process proceeds infinitesimally slowly maintaining the equation state. This process is faster; the equilibrium state is maintained only at initial& final position of system. […]

Thermodynamic Processes 

Isothermal process Any physical or chemical process in which the temperature remains constant during the state change is called isothermal process. Here, ∆T=0 Adbiatic process Any physical or chemical process which takes place without flow of heat in or out of system during the state change is called adbiatic process. Here, ∆Q=0 Isobaric process Any […]

State of a system, state variables and state function 

State of a function (system) is a condition of existence which is described by some of the measureable properties. For e.g.: water exists in three different states i.e. solid, liquid & gas depending upon the temperature at 1atm pressure. The measurable properties of gaseous system are pressure, temperature, volume, mass or composition of substances. Any […]

Introduction to Thermodynamics 

Energy is the capacity of doing work and it has different forms. Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed but can be transferred from one form to another.   Thermodynamics is a branch of science that deals with the inter-conversion of one form of energy into another. In another word, it is the relation […]

Manufacture of Ammonia by Haber’s process 

Theory: NH3 is manufactured by Haber’s process. In this process, pure nitrogen and hydrogen gases react in the ratio of 1:3 by volume in 400°C-500°C temperature, 200-900 atm pressure in presence of iron as catalyst & molybdenum as promoter.                        Fe/Mo (400-500°C)     N2+3H2 ——————–> 2NH3+ […]

Manufacture of NaOH Caster Kellner’s Process 

Fig: Manufacture of NaOH by Caster Kellener’s Process It consist mercury cathode cell which is a rectangular vessel divided into three compartments by a non-porous slate partition which do not touch the bottom of the cell. A layer of mercury seperates each compartments at the bottom of the cell. One end of the cell is pivoted […]

Homologous series 

Homologous series is defined as a systematic order of organic compounds having same functional group that can be represented by same general formula and prepared by same method. The difference between two consecutive members in their composition is –CH2unit. Each member of a homologous series is known as homologue and this phenomenon is called homology. […]