We got to see a word ‘hadrons’ above. But what actually are they? As mentioned above, hadrons are composite particles made of quarks. Although individual quarks have fractional electrical charges, they combine such that hadrons have a net integer electric charge. Another property of hadrons is that they have no net color charge even though […]


A quark is an elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter. Quarks only exist in groups with other quarks and are never found alone. Quarks combine to form composite particles called hadrons, the most stable of which are protons and neutrons, the components of atomic nuclei. Quarks are strongly interacting particles and existence of isolated quark is not discovered so far. There are […]

The Standard Model 

Particle physicists believe that matter is built of twelve types of fundamental particle – the building blocks of the universe. These fundamental particles cannot be broken down any further. Fig: Classification of Elementary Particles according to Standard Model There are two families of fundamental particles- the quarks and the leptons. There are six sorts of […]