College Bus set on Fire 

A bus belonging to Kathmandu-based Golden Gate College ‘was set on fire’ by unidentified persons on Thursday, the vehicle’s driver has said. The bus, which was ferrying students, was set on fire near Sanobharyang, Kathmandu, he said. However, police said his statement is suspicious as he had earlier said that an electric shock sparked the […]

HSEB to ensure fairness in exam centers selection | HSEBGuides.com 

HSEB Board Exam Centers Selection In order to curb irregularities in the selection of exam centers, the Higher Secondary Education Board (HSEB) has directed its district level bodies to form coordination committees that would recommend exam centers to District Education Offices. In the past, the DEO were the sole authority to appoint exam centers, superintendents, […]

Chapter 4 » Principles of Organization | Business Studies – XII 

Principles of organization 1. Principle of unity of objectives: Organizational goals, departmental goals, and individual goals must be clearly defined. All goals and objectives must have uniformity. When there is contradiction among different level of goals desired goals can’t be achieved. Therefore, unity of objectives is necessary 2. Principle of specialization:  Sound and effective organization believes on […]

Chapter 4 » Importance of Organization | Business Studies – XII 

Importance of organization 1. Mechanism for management in action:- organization is not only a chart. It is a mechanism for management in action. So many management actions such as direction, motivation, coordination and control help ion organizing function. It also helps to manage the business firm with proper management actions 2. Facilitate in management and […]

Chapter 4 » Concept and Meaning of Organization | Business Studies – XII 

Concept and meaning of organization There are so many materials and people in an enterprise. Enterprise uses the manpower and materials for achieving the goals. Materials can be collected, established and coordinated. Manpower must be hired, trained, motivated and put at right place. Managers and workers must be clear about their authority and responsibility.  Organization […]

Chapter 4 » Meaning of Authority, Responsibility and Accountability | Business Studies – XII 

Meaning of authority, responsibility and accountability Meaning of authority Authority is the kind of right and power through which it guides and directs the actions of others so that the organizational goals can be achieved. It is also related with decision making. It is vested in particular position, not to the person because authority is […]

Meaning and Principle of Delegation of Authority 

Meaning of delegation of authority All activities are not performed by one person. Authority should be provided to the subordinates too. Process of transferring authority and creation of responsibility between superior and subordinates to accomplish a certain task is called delegation of authority. It can take place without decentralization. It can be withdrawn by delegator […]

Chapter 4 » Meaning and Needs of Decentralization | Business Studies – XII 

Meaning of decentralization of authority. Decentralization is delegation of and dispersion of authority from top executive to the low level administrator or it may be geographical dispersion of authority from central to many branches. It is not possible without delegation of authority. It prepares the organizational participants of the organization. It is both philosophy and […]

Chapter 4 » Factors affecting decentralization | Business Studies – XII 

Factors affecting decentralization of authority 1. Size– size of the organization, terms of sales number, plans, number of employees affects the decentralization of authority. It is observes that the speed and adequacy of decision making, flexibility and efficiency are enhanced through decentralization of authority in case of very large multi product, diverse and complex organization. […]

Chapter 4 » Difference between Delegation and Decentralization of Authority | Business Studies – XII 

Difference between delegation and decentralization of authority Bases Delegation of authority Decentralization of authority Nature Process of transferring authority and creation of responsibility between superior and subordinates is called delegation. It can take place without decentralization Decentralization is delegation of and dispersion of authority. It is not possible without delegation of authority    Purpose It […]