IBM PC and IBM Compatible 

IBM PC IBM Compatible The computers designed as well as developed by IBM Corporation are called IBM PC. The computers which are designed by IBM but manufactured by companies other then IBM are called IBM Compatibles. It is also known as original or branded IBM. It is also called assembled ot duplicate IBM. It is […]

AI (Artificial Intelligence) 

AI can be defined as the ability of artificial object like computer through which it will have learning, thinking, reasoning and reacting capacity as humans. AI also owes a debt to the software side of computer science,which has supplied the operating systems, programming languages, and tools needed to write modern programs. Characteristics of AI AI is man […]

Preparation of Alkanes 

General Method of Preparation of Alkanes (Paraffins): Alkanes can be prepared by the following methods: 1.    From unsaturated Hydrocarbons 2.    From Haloalkanes By Wurtz Reaction By reduction 3.    By the Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones 4.    From Grignard’s Reagent 5.    From salts of Carboxylic acids By Kolbe’s electrolytic method By Heating Na-salt of Carboxylic acid 6.    From Metal Carbides     […]

Types of Programming languages 

  Types of Programming Languages     There are two types of programming languages, which can be categorized into the following ways:                1.       Low level language a)      Machine language (1GL) b)      Assembly language (2GL)                2.       High level language a)      Procedural-Oriented language […]

Formation of Griginard’s Reagent 

FORMATION OF GRIGINARD’S REAGENT GRIGINARD’S REAGENT     In the preparation of a griginard’s reagent great care must be taken that the reactants are absolutely     dry and pure. The other experimental details are given below:    Magnesium: magnesium ribbon is washed with ether and dried in desicater.    Ether: it is distilled over sodium metal and P2O5.    Ethyl bromide: it is purified […]

Types of Reactions-2 

SN2-REACTIONS SN2-REACTIONS     In SN2-REACTIONS, the formation of the carbon-nucleophile bond [C–Nu] and the cleavage of the     carbon- halogen bond [C–X] occur simultaneously.    These are nucleophilic substitution reactions which occur in one step . MECHANISM     The reaction proceeds in one step. The attack of nucleophile and release of halide group take place     at the same time.i.e Nu– + R-X ® [Nu…R…X] ® R–Nu + X–Transition state     Reactions […]

Substitution Reactions 

NUCLEOPHILIC SUBSTITUTION REACTIONS DEFINITION   ”  A reaction in which a nucleophile displaces another nucleophileand takes its position is called a nucleophilic substitution reaction. “       Nucleophilic substitution reaction are represented by the symbol “SN“. EXPLANATION     In alkyl halides, the C-X bond is polar because C-atom is attached to a highly electro-negative     halogen atom.Therefore in alkyl halides carbon […]

PREPARATION OF ALKYL HALIDES 

PREPARATION OF ALKYL HALIDES      Mono haloalkanes or Alkyl halides can be prepared by a number of methods.Some important synthetic      methods are as follows:  METHOD No. 1 BY USING ALCOHOLAS A MAIN REAGENT      A number of reagents such as halogen acids, PCl5, PCl3, SOCl2 etc. react with aliphatic alcohols      to produce corresponding alkyl halides. FROM HALOGEN ACID      Alcohols react with […]

Alkyl Halides 

ALKYL HALIDES ALKYL HALIDES     Organic compound containing halogen atom as a functional group are called alkyl halides. Alkyl halides     are very reactive organic compounds .    The general formula of alkyl halide is CnH2n+1– X, where X= Cl, Br, I.    Example: CH3-Cl (Methyl Chloride),CH3-Br (Methyl bromide) ,C2H5-Br (Ethyl Bromide) ,C3H7-Br (Propyl     bromide) etc. etc. CLASSIFICATION OF ALKYL HALIDES     Alkyl halides are classified into three […]

Theory of Directive Effect 

THEORY OF DIRECTIVE EFFECTS THEORY OF DIRECTIVE EFFECTS            FOR ORTHO-PARA DIRECTORS The resonance theory explains why certain substituents are ortho-para directing and some aremeta-directing. Let us discuss various resonance forms of phenol in which -OH group is already attached to the benzene ring. There are two non-bonding electrons pairs on the oxygen-atom of -OH group […]